Historians believe that human beings were initially in Africa butlater migrated to populate the earth. They moved toward the easternand southern part of the continent in search of food supplies duringdrought season and while migrating their animals (Bulliet,2014). Although these reasons are vividly clear, it is evidentthat human managed to occupy every part of the earth includingdeserts and arctic lands. Eventually, the whole earth was populatedwith human beings.
Neolithic Revolution refers to the transition of human lifestyle fromhunting and gathering to farming and domesticating animals (Shea,2013). Agriculturally based society is better thanhunter/gatherer-based society because it has sufficient supply offood and people can settle in one place (Olszewski,2013).
Old Stone Age (Paleolithic)life is nomadic that consist of hunting and gathering. On the otherhand, New Stone Age (Neolithic) life is a more sedentary lifestyle.In involves growing and storing food. Due to the new technology, thetransition from the Paleolithic era to Neolithic era enabled human touse tools that are more modern made of copper rather than stones andbones (Wurz, 2014).
The Venus of Willendorf and Venus illustrations gives a betterunderstanding of the nomadic society. The Venus figure symbolizesfertility. The statue represents a woman with enlarged breasts andstomach, as well as a red ochre pigment, which are symbols oflife-giving agents (Roach, 2013).Further, the statue symbolizes good luck charm and mother goddess.
From the image of a seated woman of Çatalhöyük suggest the role ofthe women in the Neolithic was to nurture and protect all creatures.This is evident by the way she is holding two animal heads. Accordingto Hodder (n.d), fertilitywas important for the inhabitants of Çatalhöyük because itsignified the quality of their community based on the surplus of theagricultural products.
Bulliet, R. W. (2014). Theearth and its peoples: A global history.Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Hodder, I. (n.d.). Çatalhöyük2005 Archive Report – Introduction. Retrieved January 06, 2017, fromhttp://www.catalhoyuk.com:8080/archive_reports/2005/ar05_01.html
Olszewski, D. I. (2015). StoneTools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Near East: AGuide. PaleoAnthropology, 14,18.
Roach, A. (2013, March 28). Venusof Willendorf. Retrieved January 06, 2017, fromhttp://anthropology.msu.edu/anp264-ss13/2013/03/28/venus-of-willendorf/
Shea, J. J. (2013). Stonetools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Near East: A guide.Cambridge University Press.
Wurz, S. (2014). Stone Tools in thePaleolithic and Neolithic Near East. A Guide.