Thestructure and function of the pancreasStudent’sNameInstitutional Affiliation
Thestructure and function of the pancreas
Thetitle of the subject matter is a topic from the abdominal ultrasoundpathology. The abdominal ultrasound refers to the scanning done onthe abdominal parts to establish if an individual has any ailmentbefore beginning the treatment (Rizzo, 2015). This topic under studyis normal anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pancreascontains different term as which may not be familiar to the reader.Therefore, the term anatomy as used in the medical profession is thestructure of the body parts (Rizzo, 2015). In this context, anatomyhas been used to illustrate the structure of the pancreas.Additionally, the term physiology has been incorporated to mean thefunction performed the pancreas what the pancreas does and how itdoes its roles. Moreover, pathophysiology involves the study of thebiological and physical manifestations of the disease affecting thepancreas alongside the underlying abnormalities and physiologicaldisturbances (Rizzo, 2015). However, it should be known thatpathophysiology is not for the right treatment of a disease rather,it elaborates all the functions of the pancreas that may result inthe signs of the disease. This paper is aimed to discuss the normaland pathologic anatomy of the pancreas alongside giving a descriptionof the patient’s preparation before scanning the type of diseaseand significantly enough, enumerate on the causative agents of theillness and treatment measures.
Inthe typical sonographic appearance, the pancreas is in the abdomenand thus suitable for ultrasound examination. The anatomy of thepancreas consists of various structures. These are the pancreaticduct, common bile duct, and it rests upon the duodenum. Although thepancreas has all the listed parts and is thus considered to be onecontinuous organ, it has three major anatomic regions that have theminor functional difference. The first part is the head of thepancreas which is located on the curvature of the duodenum (Huang,and Lee, 2013). Moreover, the right border of the mesenteric vesselsmarks the transition to the body of the pancreas. This is the majorpart of the pancreas since the tail of the pancreas is on the farright. Besides the mesenteric vessels, the aorta, and inferior venacava, the other organs that lie close to the pancreas include thestomach, spleen, and the left kidney (Huang, and Lee, 2013). Thedescription given above is a summary of the structure of thepancreas.
Despitethe physical structure that can be seen and even touched, thepathological anatomy of the pancreas is also made up of exocrine andendocrine cells. The exocrine cell manufactures and releasespancreatic juice that moves through the pancreatic duct into theduodenum (Huang, and Lee, 2013). The enzymes in this juice play asignificant role of digesting the fat, carbohydrates, and proteinfound in the consumed food. Conversely, the endocrine cells are smalland are arranged in clusters called the islets of Langerhans. Theseislets have a responsibility of manufacturing and releasing insulinand glucagon into the blood which also performs various tasks (Huang,and Lee, 2013). Insulin aids in the lowering of the blood sugar levelif it happens to be high in the blood of a person. This occurs whenthe insulin stimulates the liver and the other muscles to absorb andstore the extra sugar in the blood stream. On the other hand,glucagon assists in increasing the amount of sugar when the bloodsugar level is low (Huang, and Lee, 2013). Glucagon performs thisfunction by stimulating the liver and the other fatty tissues torelease the stored sugar into the bloodstream.
Acomputed tomography (CT) is a diagnostic technique that makes use ofX-rays together with computer knowledge to produce horizontal imagesof particular parts of the body (Makara, Chau, Hall, Kloeppel,Podadera, and Barrs, 2015). However, before one is subjected to acomputed tomography, he or she must be prepared to ensure that asuccessful scan is undertaken. Various precautions which need to beconsidered before a patient is examined. The first precaution is thatif the patient is a female person, she should check with the doctorbefore scheduling the examination day. Also, before scanning thepancreas, the patient will be required to change into a patient gownwhich may be provided by the doctor in case the patient does not haveone (Makara, et.al, 2015). The patient will be required to remove allpiercings and if possible leave all jewelry at home on the actualscanning day.
Additionally,the scanning protocols incorporate the utilization of contrast mediato improve the radiologist`s ability to view the images of the partsof the body (Makara, et.al, 2015). Therefore, the pancreas, in thiscase, can be observed clearly without any challenge. However, somepatients especially those with kidney malfunctions should not bescanned with the contrast media but rather with an alternativeimaging exam. Moreover, the utilization of the contrast media is notapplied without the consent of the patient. The patient is requiredto sign an acknowledgment form showing that he or she accepts all therisks of contrast media. The patient ought to know that the contrastmedia may be administered through an injection known as theintravenous (IV) line (Makara, et.al, 2015). Besides these, thecommon form of computed tomography scan is the double contrast whichhas more different views. This is because the more contrast oneconsumes, the clear the images are for the radiologist to visualizeyour digestive tract.
Anotherpreparation is that the patient should inform the access centerrepresentative if he or she has any allergic reaction to the contrastmedia. Therefore, IV contrast will not be offered to a person who hashad severe reactions in the past (Makara, et.al, 2015). These plansmust be discussed with the patient before the schedule of theexamination. Also, if the doctor has prescribed that the scanningwill be done without the intake of contrast, the patient is free toeat and drink before the examination. However, if the doctorprescribes a computed tomography scan with contrast, the patient mustnot eat anything three hours before the actual exam (Makara, et. al,2015). Conversely, the patient can consume clear liquids. Moreover,patients who have diabetes are required to take light meals threehours to the scan time. The doctor may also request any otherspecific preparations based on the patient’s health status.
Theetiology of the disease refers to what causes the disease or thestudy that deals with such cases (Witt, Beer, Rosendahl, Chen,Chandak, Masamune, and Bhatia, 2013). For instance, chronicpancreatitis is caused by the excessive deposits of calcium in thepancreas or it may be due to the changes in the pancreatic ducts.This has been observed in many patients with this ailment aftercarrying out imaging tests. Moreover, the most endosonographicfeature of chronic pancreatitis is the presence of stones. On thecontrary, there exist other suggestive features which includedilation of the main pancreatic duct, irregular pancreatic duct, andcysts (Witt, et. al, 2013). On the other hand, lab values illustratethe signs in an individual which exhibits chronic pancreatitis. Forinstance, the blood tests which determine the amount of enzymes inthe body can be used to diagnose the attack of pancreatitis. Anincrease in serum in the blood is a sign of pancreatitis. Also, acutepancreatitis has been discovered to raise the level of lipase in theblood.
Treatmentcan be offered in two different ways. The first method is by painrelief, and the other one is through surgery (Witt, et. al, 2013).While applying for pain alleviation, the exogenous pancreatic enzymeis consumed with the meal. The exogenous pancreatic enzyme thusdegrades the response of Cholecystokinin to a meal and thuspancreatic stimulation and pain are reduced (Witt, et. al, 2013).Treatment through surgery aims to improve the drainage system of thepancreatic duct to prevent accumulation of calcium in the pancreaticduct. Therefore, these two treatment criteria have been found to beeffective in dealing with chronic pancreatitis.
Imagesillustrating chronic pancreatitis
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