TheAmerican Revolution, Liberalism, and Industrialization
TheAmerican Revolution, Liberalism, and Industrialization
Thegaining of independence by the British Empire’s thirteen coloniesto form the United States of America was the concept behind theAmerican revolution. These colonies, between the years 1775 and 1783,stood against Britain initiating the American Revolutionary war armedbattle (Jones,2016).It is difficult to identify one single reason attached to the onsetof this revolution since multiple factors contributed to itscommencement. Firstly, the British Empire ruled the America from afar distance making communication slow and its government treatedtheir colonists unfairly and deprived them of many rights. Secondly,the parliament of Britain imposed laws without the coloniallegislature representation including the 1751 and 1764 Currency Acts(Jones,2016). Thirdly, after the Indian and France war, Britain lost a substantialamount of funds and to recover from this, it wanted its colonies topay Stamp Tax. The taxes were placed on documents such as playingcards and newspapers, as well as, products including tea, glass, andpaper, resulting in the Boston tea party and the imposition of theIntolerable Acts (Jones,2016).Fourthly, the colonists were prohibited from settling within theAppalachian Mountains and were supposed to house the British soldierswhen necessary. Finally, the British parliament curbed Boston townmeetings and shut the port. Consequently, the American colonistdecided to proclaim their independence because of the Britishoppression starting a war between Great Britain and the colonies.
Aftertheir surrender in 1781, Britain signed a peace treaty with theAmerican colonist named the Treaty of Paris, and these coloniesbecame the United States of America (Jones,2016).the war political, economic, and social outcomes were great.Politically, America was independent of Britain and its founderswanted to rule it in a dissimilar manner to Britain by ratifying theConfederation Articles (Jones,2016).resultantly, both federal and state governments could not taxcitizens and the new nation had no executive branch. Jones(2016)claims this caused civil unrest since the government was unstable tooverpower rebellions and prompted the founders to create acentralized government by drafting a Constitution. Economically, thecountry experiences high poverty rates and people rebelled againstthe government indicating economic issues linked to the majoritycitizens. Socially, the white Americans lives practically remainedthe same but those of slaves and women changed with the conclusion ofthe war (Jones,2016).It marked the beginning on gender equality and the recognition of therights to freedom.
Thecore principles of liberalism include the unalienable rights of men,citizens are self-governing, and the government is the people’sservant (Musgrove,2013).The liberalism idea was particularly well-known among the Americancolonists and made them to drastically redesign the politicalideologies in the 1776 American revolution. The initial Americanliberal ideas were linked to their thought that as British subjects,they should have similar liberties enjoyed by every Englishmen sincethey had no representatives in the British parliament. They includedproperty rights, trial by jury and voting rights. Since Americancolonists believed that needed to be as free as the British, theyformed rebellions that led to the revolution such as the 1773 Bostontea party and the late 1760s Stamp Act rebellion (Musgrove,2013).Britain’s reaction to these uprisings provoked liberal sentimentseven further, resulting to an open rebellion of its rule and theRevolutionary War. Musgrove(2013)claims liberalism allowed people to fight against a government ifthey are denied their sovereignty and rights. The idea became thefoundation associated with the American declaration for independenceto prevent the tyranny they suffered from the British rule and theirlegislations. The independent nation recognized the populationsvoting rights and protected their citizens’ rights to happiness,life, and liberty forming an example for future movements andrevolutions that desired enlightened ideas.
Uponthe reach of the Industrial Revolution in the United States aroundthe 19thcentury, the American culture experienced profound reshaping, havinga crucial influence on the following global history. As theRevolutionary War marked the origin of the country, the IndustrialRevolution provoked its maturity. In agreement with Chaplin(2015),the industrial revolution modified every facet of the American lives,from the political to the economic platforms, not excluding thesocial arena.
TheAmerican Industrial Revolution’s political effects encompassed thegrowth of the nation as an international economic power, theenactment of labour-based legislation, and the conflict betweenmodern improvement and conventional culture. In agreement withChaplin(2015),the Civil War resulted from friction between the agrarian societythat depended heavily on slave workforce and the industrial society,where paid workers powered the consumer economy. The American economydevelopment has global repercussions like increased Japan relations,which stimulated quick territorial growth. The urban employees becamean outspoken political class, encouraging legislation enactmentincluding the Fair Labour Standard Act of 1938 (Chaplin,2015).
Economically,industrialization revealed the predominance and arrival of capitalism(Chaplin,2015).The functioning factories of this time elucidated the capitalistideology of pay labour where personnel renounced the mode ofproduction ownership to get hourly wages. Resultantly, wealthaccumulated among the industrialists and were linked to the consumermarket fluctuations making American an economic giant that benefitedboth internally and internationally.
Socially,industrialization initiated the rise of large urban centres includingNew York City and Boston and encouraged an immense internal migrationof labourers (Chaplin,2015).It also inspired the growth of unskilled workers. Before the 19thcentury, a high percentage of Americans not affiliated withagriculture were craftsmen, so the Industrial Revolution commoditizedlabour. It also generated a broad range of cheap products thatthreatened consumer culture, marking the culmination of mostsubsistence lifestyles of rural Americans.
Chaplin,J. E. (2015). The Other Revolution. EarlyAmerican Studies, An Interdisciplinary Journal,13(2),285
Jones,T. C. (2016). The Dreadful Effects of British Cruilty. JournalOf The Early Republic,36(3),435-465
Musgrove,G. D. (2013). Making Sense of American Liberalism. JournalOf Southern History,(3), 755.