The3-5 Year Developmental Stage
The3-5 Year Developmental Stage
Theprocess of human development takes place in a series of steps thathave been described and analyzed by different theorists. There aredifferences and some similarities between the theories. This paperwill address the development of emotional, physical, cognitive, andsocial skills for children at the age of 3-12 years. The paper willalso apply the three theories (Erikson, Piaget, and Freud) to explainthe development that takes place between 3 and 12 years.
Emotional,Physical, Cognitive, and Social Development
Thephysical develop take different dimensions. Babies have bigger headsin relation to the rest of the body. Physical growth is noticedfollowing the development of the body at a higher rate than the head.Girls experience development in secondary characteristics at about 10years (Bartolotta & Shulman, 2011).
Childrendevelop complex cooperative play between 3-5 years, which helps themlearn how to socialize with peers. Between 5 and 12 years of age,they are able to have imaginary friends and choose people that theywant to socialize with (Bartolotta & Shulman, 2011). The peergroups gain significance at the age of 7-12 years.
Inmost cases, children develop emotional skills at about seven years.They become aware of different emotions and feel sympathy. Thedevelopment of cognitive skills can be easily noticed at the age ofthree years. Children are able to recall past events and concentrateon certain activities. They are also able to comprehend the conceptof numbers by the age of five. They develop the sense of literacybetween five and seven years (Bartolotta & Shulman, 2011).Logical reasoning skills development takes place at 7-10 years. Theability to comprehend relational terms is noticed at 10-12 years. Thechild may also be able to comprehend abstract concepts.
Childrengo through three phases of development between 3 and 12 years. Theyundergo pre-operational phase at 3-7 years. During this phase,children develop cognitive as well as language skills. They developthe ability to tell stories and think about events that are notimmediately present (Joubish & Khurram, 2011). The concrete phaseoccurs between 7 and 11 years. During this stage, the child developsthe ability to make rational judgments and engage in abstractthoughts. They can also manipulate information and solve problems.They undergo the formal phase at the age of 12 years, where theircognition becomes fully developed. During this phase, children canincorporate the key principles of logic in their reasoning.
Childbetween 3 and 12 years undergo two stages of Erickson’s theory.They undergo the phase of initiative versus guilt between the age ofthree and five years. A suitable environment enables children toincrease their leadership and decision making skills (Sacco, 2013).They undergo the phase of industry versus inferiority at 4-12 years.During this phase, peer groups become the major sources ofself-esteem. A suitable environment helps them to become confidentand acquire the capacity to achieve goals.
Duringthe phallic stage (3-5 years) children become more aware of theiremotional differences. This leads to conflict between resentment,erotic attraction, fear, and rivalry. During latency (5-12 years),psychosexual growth does not take place. Children focus on thedevelopment of moral values (Ahmed, 2012).
Inconclusion, the three theories provide a clear description ofdevelopment that occurs at the age of 3-12 years. However, Erikson’stheory is more useful. Erickson’s theory is more objective since itindicates the impacts of both suitable and unsuitable environment ona child’s growth. For example, a suitable environment helps kidsbecome industrious while an inappropriate surrounding leads toinferiority. Therefore, Erikson’s theory makes it possible topredict what the children will become, depending on the type ofenvironment in which they grow.
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Bartolotta,E. and Shulman, B. (2011). Childdevelopment.Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Joubish,M. & Khurram, M. (2011). Cognitive development in Jean Piaget’swork and its implications for teachers. WorldApplied Sciences Journal,12 (8), 1260-1265.
Sacco,G. (2013). Re-envisaging the eight developmental stages of ErikErikson: The Fibonacci life-chart method (FLCM). Journalof Educational and Developmental Psychology,3 (1), 140-146.