Glucose regulation takes places through the negative feedbackmechanisms. Glucose homeostasis ensures that the levels of bloodglucose are maintained at the relatively constant condition. Glucosehomeostasis involves mainly two hormones, glucagon, and insulinhowever, there are other glucoregulatory hormones such as the amylin,epinephrine, cortisol, ACTH, growth hormone, somatostatin and thyroidhormones (Rafacho et al., 2014). The blood glucose levels aremonitored by various tissues, but the pancreas’ islets ofLangerhans play the most significant role.
The pancreas and liver are the organs mainly involved in thenegative feedback mechanism in the regulation of blood glucose(Goudsmit, 2014). Upon the rise in glucose levels by a stimulus suchas eating, will be detected by the receptor and the input informationwill be relayed to the control center. It determines the course ofaction to be taken which is transmitted as an output to the effectorwhich will produce the response. The response is that the pancreaswill release insulin, which will influence the target cells to takeup glucose. The liver then converts the glucose into glycogen, itsstorage form in the liver. Glucose levels are lowered back to normallevels. When glucose levels fall below the norm by a stimulus likelack of eating, the pancreas will be induced to release glucagon. Itinfluences liver target cells to break down the glycogen into glucosewhich is released into the blood. It will then raise the glucoselevels back to the norm.
In the pancreas, the effector will influence the production of bothhormones by different cells. When the effector is expected to producea decrease in the glucose levels, the beta cells will release insulinwhich raises glycogenesis, synthesis of fatty acids and proteins.When the effector is expected to increase the glucose levels, thealpha cells will release glucagon which enhances glycogenolysis andgluconeogenesis to raise the blood levels of glucose (Marroquí etal., 2014). Depending on the action taken, the blood levels arereturned to the norm helping in gaining homeostasis.
Glucose is required for the cells to function. Homeostasis willensure the levels are kept regulated, storing the excess andutilizing them when it is needed. The blood glucose levels affectevery body function changing its function capabilities. The feedbackmechanism ensures that the blood levels are at norm thus the bodydoesn’t develop diseases due to irregularities in blood glucoselevels.
Goudsmit, E. M. (2014). Carbohydrates and carbohydrate metabolism inMollusca. Chemical zoology, 7, 219-243.
Marroquí, L., Alonso-Magdalena, P., Merino, B., Fuentes, E., Nadal,A., & Quesada, I. (2014). Nutrient regulation of glucagonsecretion: involvement in metabolism and diabetes. Nutritionresearch reviews, 27(01), 48-62.
Rafacho, A., Ortsäter, H., Nadal, A., & Quesada, I. (2014).Glucocorticoid treatment and endocrine pancreas function:implications for glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance anddiabetes. Journal of Endocrinology, 223(3), R49-R62.