SupportiveHousing for the Elderly Program
TheSupportive Housing for the Elderly Program is part of the UnitedStates Department of Housing and Urban Development. The program hasundergone significant modifications through the years since itsenactment. The purpose of this program was to offer funds to privateor public organizations that develop and operate housing forlow-income seniors. As a result, senior citizens have the opportunityto live in environments that have the necessary amenities for qualityliving standards. Similarly, the program aimed at providing rentsubsidies to senior citizens as a way of making housing affordable.This study’s significance is to establish the positive impacts ofthe program and whether it adequately fulfills its purpose andagenda. One of the research questions employed in the study iswhether the program offers affordable housing to the senior citizens.The second research question tries to find out whether the admissionmethods into the programs are satisfactory. The study will use amixed-methods design of a quasi-experimental method andqualitative methods.A survey was conducted to collect data from participants. Theselection was based on the level of income and geographical locationof both tenants and landlords. The sample size had a total of 200participants with 100 homeowners and 100 renters. The study predictsa positive effect of the program as it has shown positive resultswithin communities.
Supportive Housingfor the Elderly Program is established as a program under theadministration of the United States Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment (HUD) (Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, 2013).Section 202 of the program was enacted and established under theHousing Act of 1959. Since its inception, the program underwent aseries of programmatic iterations in its entire lifetime. Initially,Section 202 gave an allowance of up to 3% loan funding with anallowance of rent supplement assistance for some units. According tothe Notice of Grant Funding Availability Journal (2015), Section 202provided funding through loans and subsidies between 1974 and 1990.Additionally, in 1990, Section 811 program was created. It is in thisyear that Section 202 program also funded housing for both peoplewith disabilities and the seniors. In the preceding year, the programwas converted into a capital advance grant that encompassed Section202 PRAC which was a project rental assistance contract that servedthe operational expenses. According to the administrative agency,HUD, low-income senior households paid more to housing as compared towhat they could afford. The gradual transition climaxed in the 2011HUD study (Tavia, 2013). The study focused on the worst-case housingneeds. Its findings estimated that 8.48 million households fell underworst-case housing needs. From this figure, 1.47 million were seniorrenter households (Gonzalez, 2014)
In the recentpast, some steps have been designed to regain financial stability toa Section 202 like in all other federal housing programs. This hasbeen made possible through rental subsidies, and a careful sponsorscreening process resulting in fewer defaults. The latest HUD’sdata indicates an upward growth of over 6,000 units that housedapproximately 263,000 households of older persons as at 2006.Additionally, housing under Section 202 program performs better inphysical inspections as compared to all other HUD’s housingprograms.
Purposeof the Program
The program offersfunds to private or public organizations that develop and operatehousing for low-income seniors. Section 202 programs have helped toprovide supportive services for the elderly and increased the supplyof affordable housing. The enactment of Section 202 of the HousingAct supports the programs that provide the low-income and the elderlywith the options to live in an environment with support activitiessuch as transportation and cleaning. Through the provision of capitaladvances, the program funds the construction and rehabilitation ofhousing for elderly low-income seniors. It also provides rentsubsidies for housing projects to make houses affordable.
According to theHUD, a majority of the housing project under Section 202 aresponsored by faith-based organizations. Sponsors and co-sponsors ofSection 202 are strictly private consumer cooperatives and nonprofitorganizations (Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA), 2015). Tenantsunder this program must have an income of 50% or less in a specifiedlocality, median income, and with an age of at least 62 years. Apercentage of the designed units are accessible to non-elderlypersons who have mobility impairments and other targeteddisabilities. Under the Section 202, residents have an average age of79 with approximately 39% of them at the age of 80. The Housing andUrban Development (HUD) program statistics shows that the mean incomefor Section 202 residents is slightly higher than $10,000 annually.
The enactedSection of the Housing Act Supportive Housing for the Elderly Programremains the undisputable leading provider of non-interest capitalloans that have a grace period of that stretches to 40 years. Thesegment of Project Rental Assistance Contracts has become theprincipal sponsor in construction, rehabilitation and the managementof residential projects for elderly low-income rent contributions.The funds also facilitate the hiring of men in projects serving frailresidents. Supportive services should strictly adhere to thecategories of the elderly who should be served.
In specificinstances, housing financed by Section 202 program has providedsupportive services for persons at risk of being institutionalized.The program promises a cheap and efficient means through which theelderly and disabled can acquire capital and advance funding with norepayment of the capital advance. Houses are strictly assigned toelderly occupants with low-income and at least 40 years.
This program isimportant to the organization in fulfilling the objectives set out bythe United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Theprincipal assignment given to the HUD is to ensure that all personsacquire homes regardless of their abilities and financial status.Part of the problem facing the housing sector is the unavailabilityof support and aid to persons who cannot afford housing units. Partof this group is the elderly population.
Significanceof the Study
The research willendeavor to evaluate Section 202 of HUD`s supportive housing programand provide interventions which will seek to improve the program andfix any issues. A major contribution of Section 202 will offerrelevant facts into the analysis of data for this study. It shalldelve into the criteria used as the minimum threshold for the elderlyto get a house to determine if it achieves its intended objectives.This study shall offer valuable insights into the sustainability ofthe supportive elderly program under Section 202 as reported by theHousing and Urban Development department. The Housing Act of 1959 isa fundamental component for enhancing construction and the provisionof housing services to low-income elderly persons. Based on surveysstatistics, this research evaluates the practical application of theprogram as it operates under after the enactment of Section 202.Similarly, the study will try to discover whether the program willremain pertinent in future while still delivering on its primaryobjectives. Similarly, the study aims to reveal any emerging issueswithin the program that needs appropriate review. In this regard,responses from participants will be helpful in evaluating the successand failures of the program and therefore, highlight on improvementparts. This process will ensure that the program delivers on itsobjectives.
i.Does HUD’s Supportive Housing Program for theelderly under Section 202 of the Housing Act offer affordable housingfor low-income seniors?
Thisresearch question determines the efficacy of the program. Itquestions the performance of the program through its objectives. Itsanswer will articulate whether the program is effective or not.
ii.Are the requirements and procedures used todetermining applicant’s eligibility before admitting persons to thehousing programs satisfactory?
Theresearch question determines if the program carefully and correctlyidentifies the target population. The program may be serving adifferent demographic category than its intended one. As a result,this research question will aid in creating an intervention planwhich will address and fix any issues.
Incomeof the houses formed the independent variables while affordability,satisfaction, and housing stability were the dependent variables. Thehomeowners’ responses were tested against the objectives of theprogram.
Thefollowing hypotheses can be formulated as follows to makes theresearch questions more testable.
H0:There is no significant relationship between Section202’s supportive housing forthe elderly program and affordability of housing for low-incomeseniors.
H1:There is a significant relationship between Section202’s supportive housing forthe elderly program and affordability of housing for low-incomeseniors.
H0:There is no significant association between Section202’s applicant’s eligibilityand the level of satisfaction of applicants
H1:There is a significant relationship between Section202’s applicant’s eligibilityand the level of satisfaction of applicants.
Exploratoryanalysis of the hypotheses was done using descriptive survey.Qualitative data complemented results for the hypotheses.
The study shall apply a mixed-methods design ofquasi-experimental method and a qualitative method. Accordingto Leahy‐Warren,McCarthy & Corcoran (2012), mixed-methods design takes advantageof using various channels of investigating a research problem. Thestudy obtained information from Section 202 projects for elderlypersons. The primary methods of data collection include theapplication of survey of homeownersand renters.Apart from the survey technique as the major method of datacollection, this study also reviewed documents related to supportivehousing programs, including journals, and statistical handbookspublished by HUD. It also highlighted the Section202 legislationthat established the supportivehousing for the elderly programs(Tsai, 2013).
Thesurvey considered data from Section 202 renters and tenants and HUDdata. As mentioned earlier, the study had both independent anddependent variables. Income of the houses formed the independentvariables while affordability, satisfaction, and housing stabilitywere the dependent variables. Completed surveys for 100 tenants and100 landlords had open-ended questions to encourage meaningfulresponses. The questions ensured complete responses and gave room forextra information. Similarly, the questions ensured attitudes andfeelings were incorporated in the study. However, this samplingtechnique may be skewed as it does not allow comprehensive and directresponses. The respondents may also feel frustrated if the questionsdo not resonate well with them. The data was later analyzed usingMicrosoft Excel.
Themain purposes of the study were to evaluate the experiencesof elderlyresidents with disabilities. Survey questionnaires also sought toassess the attitudes elderly persons with disabilities HUD housingprograms and supportive services. The survey majorly focused ontenants and landlords and was used to determine the tenants andlandlords` satisfaction on the current supportive services offered.The data was collected from facilities selected by random samplingspread across urban and rural areas with tenants of a variety ofdisabilities. The selected facilities varied in size from six-bedroomhouses to single rooms and only included projects designedspecifically for the elderly and for the disabled.
Justificationof the Research Design
For the Housingand Urban Development department to determining applicant`seligibility under the Section, there is a need to applydescriptive survey design in the evaluation variable of interest.Updated extracts from the HUD data were used to extend thedescriptive analysis presented in the research design. Byapplying descriptive survey, this study will generate an accurateunderstanding the contribution of Section 202 in offering affordablehousing for low-income seniors and procedures used to determiningapplicant’s eligibility before admitting persons to the housingprograms satisfactory.Under descriptive survey, the study focused on tenants and landlordsas the primary source for data collection. According to the AmericanHousing Survey, collectingsurvey data from primary sources is a correct approach to gather dataas it offers first-hand information into the underlying informationof the respondents. Respondents were questioned whether they werehomeowners, rent. They were alsoquestioned on their experiences affordability as influenced by theirincome. The survey also helped acquire important information into theeffectiveness and the level of satisfaction of the renters and thetenants (Vandenbroucke, 2013)
With the helpQuality Assurance Plans (QAP), this study was able to achieve acredible evaluation of accurate and reliable data. Quality AssurancePlans facilitated the process of data collection methods, maintenanceof records and a data analysis.
Thestudy selected a representative sample of 100 tenants and 100landlords who have benefited from the HUD’s supportivehousing for the elderly program.The sampling frame was identified by data on household-level fromHUD’s system. The study excluded low-income exceptional cases whofailed to meet the age threshold.
Thisstudy selected a sample of tenants and landlords based on their levelof income and geographic region. The study selected the sample byselecting individual Section 202 properties and then identifying theowners and tenants of the property. The survey centered on theexperiences of the landlords and tenants who have benefited from theHUD’s Section 202 property. The sampling based its merit strictlyon having met the required criteria for acquiring supportive housingprogram. Sampling also put into consideration the geographicdispersion of the sampling frame and therefore focused on thebeneficiary of one single program across all regions. The sampledesign integrated both the national with metropolitan areas thatbenefit from Section 202 Act of1959.
Thesample size 200 tenants and landlords they are 100% representation ofthe two primary stakeholders. Both national and metropolitan areaformed the sample sizes for this study. The sample design integratedthe national with metropolitan area sample. Calculating the areasample size is necessary for a metropolitan area because theirhousing cost distribution varies. A sample size of 200 house units issufficient to account for a survey with the longitudinalnonresponsive rate. However, the selection of the sample size islimited to the available budget. Securing enough funding is requiredto employ a broad sample (SenateSubcommittee on Housing for the elderly, 2012). Besides,accurate calculation of a sample size can be determined by developinga simulation model based on data over a range of years.
Theuse of descriptive survey may not be accurate in the collection ofdata and final evaluation of findings when examining varying propertycharacteristics. The collection of data through the survey is boundto many faults when the variables under review have a series ofvarying characteristic that are not generic. For this study, it isimportant to note that the expected response varies with age andfrailty of residents and the type of service offered. On the side oflandlords, their response will incline towards a profit perspective.Because Section 202’s nonprofit owners host amenities for sitestaffing, meals, transportation and provide service coordination theyare not likely to share accurate and detailed information asrequired.
Withthe challenge of budget constraints, surveying will be limited tometropolitan areas. The descriptive survey, in this case, does notreflect an accurate view of the state of affairs as at now. Thisdesign requires a continuous process of data collection over theyears. Significant information on Section 202 properties in someStates is lost resulting in a non-comprehensive assessment of thesupportive housing program forthe elderly data. HUDconfesses that there is little compelling data to the question of therelationship between the elderly accessing housing and income (HUDPublic Housing Occupancy Guidebook, 2013). Theirlevels of satisfaction vary widely too. A more qualitative approachis needed to collect and analyze so as to derive accurate and up todate data on supportive service models.
Byestablishing the level of satisfaction of the participants, theresearch will be able to identify the factors that limit the tenant`ssatisfaction. It shall also develop the different characteristics ofall Section 202 properties that influence satisfaction.
Income has been identified as the largest barrier in owning a house.HUD’s supportive housing programoffers affordable housing for low-income seniors. The programhas helped the sponsors to meet the Housing and Urban Development’sgoal of decreasing development delays that.
Thestudy will compare the satisfaction of landlords for properties thatreceived funding and the properties that did not receive fundingunder the Section 202. According to tenants, the incomeeligibility threshold established under Section 202 has played avital role in enhancing access to houses. Persons whose income wasabove Section 8`s limits can now legibly live in buildings financedafter using Section 202. The projects funded under Section 202attracted a service-dependent population of severely disabledpersons. The projects helped curb the numbers of physically disabledpersons who were able to earn moderate incomes from accessing housingunder Section 202. However, some of the issues that requireintervention include the need for preservation of senior housing. Theprogram does not mention about the preservation of these constructedhouses. Similarly, there seems to be a lack of funds that can supportthe construction of new and affordable houses in the present time tosupport the growing U.S. senior population.
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