Thereare various health issues affecting the population, but according toCenter for Disease and Prevention (CDC), tobacco use remains the solelargest cause of diseases and death in the United States despitebeing preventable. Notably, more than 480,000 Americans die yearlydue to cigarette consumption with 41,000 of them being as aconsequence of second-hand exposure. As a result, the nation spendsconsiderable amounts approximately $300 billion a year insmoking-related illnesses(CDC, n.d.).Therefore, cigarette smoking has become an important healthcondition, which cannot be ignored today as it is putting the livesof people in danger.
In2015, CDC estimated that 36.5 million adults consumed cigarettes,this is about 15.1% of that population and 27.6 million of thatnumber smoked daily. According to CDC data, the behavior is prevalentamong American Indian/Alaska Natives (non-Hispanic), multiple race(non-Hispanic), blacks (non-Hispanics), whites (non-Hispanic),Hispanics, and Asians (non-Hispanic) were 21.9%, 20.2%, 16.7%, 16.6%,10.1% and 7.0%, respectively. Moreover, smoking was prevalent amongthe males, people between 25 to 64 years age bracket, and those belowthe poverty level and with little education exposure (CDC,n.d.).
Thisprevalence is attributed to exposure to risk factors suchsocioeconomic status, age, race/ethnicity and education. However,tobacco use differs geographically and can be influenced by otherfactors such as disparities in program funding for tobacco,smoke-free protections, and prices(Healthy People 2020, n.d.).
Furthermore,this condition greatly affects people’s health and social lives. Tobegin with, smoking makes people depend on cigarettes as the habit isaddictive. Therefore, they become less productive as they cannotfunction effectively without it. Moreover, they have to incur cost topurchase cigarettes, which are not entirely safe as they causevarious diseases and health conditions such as bad breath, teeth andnail staining, coronary heart disease, allergies, atherosclerosis,respiratory diseases, heart failure or attack, blood pressure,obesity, peripheral artery disease, and different types of cancer.Also, the condition can make someone lose his/her friends who are notcigarette oriented and reduce his/her ability to perform in socialactivities such as sports.
However,for any smoker outthere, hope isnot lost as there are various models, which can help terminating thebehavior. For instance, the trans theoretical model can be used toinitiate smoke cessation. To begin with, when a therapist orcounselor or physician meets a client who is a smoker, the patient isalways in denial and does not intend to take any action as he/she iscomfortable with the condition. The client is unaware that his/herbehavior produces negative consequences or problematic. As aconsequence, the patient will put much emphasis on the disadvantageschanging the behavior(LaMorte, 2016).
Thus,as a therapist, it is important to motivate the client empatheticallytowards change as he/she will not stop smoking if the need to do sois not present, otherwise, would only cause rebellion from theclient. This can be through education, recommending and giving theclients various options of achieving behavior change, knowing thepatient’s feedback about therapy sessions and following, monitoringand reinforcing behavioral change (LaMorte,2016).If this stage proves successful, the patient moves to contemplation.Here the client has already shown that he/she understands theconsequences of his/her behavior.
Insuch a case, the therapist should in emotionally understanding waymotivate the client and show support and concern. This is becausewhen the client realizes the stage he/she is in, there might befeelings of rejection, which create this void that can only besatisfied by love and support (LaMorte,2016).Lack of this would result in client reinstating his/her previousstate. Afterward, if the client shows determination to take stepstowards change, the treatment process will move to preparation phase.
Inthis stage, the physician should show or help the client with clearstrategy or plan for smoke cessation, through proper environmentconditions and setting out quitting date, especially client’sbirthday (LaMorte,2016).Furthermore, the physician can discuss with the client variousnicotine replacement systems such as bupropion and the importance offamily and social support. This is because during the cessationsession the patient experiences withdraw symptoms, which can motivatethe client to quit the treatment process.
Thus,it is important to have an environment that does not remind theclient the need to smoke. Also, bupropion will help to lower theeffects of withdrawing. The onset of termination date is the beggingof action stage(LaMorte, 2016).If there was any drug replacement for nicotine or use of bupropion,it should be on hand, and the environment should have been set. Inthis stage, frequent office meetings and professionally run groupmeetings should be effected as this will help in enhancing supportand follow up the need for cessation.
Thus,the desire to avoid going to previous stages ushers treatment tomaintenance stage. The efforts of this stage are to make sure thatbehavioral change is reinforced(La, 2013).The patient has to adapt to the new lifestyle. This will help inpreventing relapse, and finally, the patient will seize smoking aftereffective maintenance and thus, will have no motive to return to theprevious behavior.
Therefore,smoking is a serious issue, which needs to be addressedsubstantively. Thus to help a patient recover, a physician can adopta transtheoretical model that will help the client in the recovery process.It is divided into six stages pre contemplation, contemplation,preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. These phases helpclient and physician to come up with a cessation plan. The majorcomponents of this model are motivation, social, and professionalsupport. Thus, smoke cessation is a comprehensive plan that needs thecooperation of client, physician and family members.
CDC.(n.d.). Burden of tobacco use in the U.S. | data and statistics |campaign resources | Tipsfrom Former Smokers | CDC.Retrieved fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/resources/data/cigarette-smoking-in-united-states.html
HealthyPeople 2020. (n.d.). Tobacco Use | HealthyPeople 2020.Retrieved fromhttps://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/tobacco-use
LaMorte, W.(2016). The trans theoretical model (Stages of Change). Retrievedfromhttp://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/BehavioralChangeTheories/BehavioralChangeTheories6.html