Question# 1: Developmental Perspectives
Bio-psychologists use genetic makeup, nervous system and hormones toexplain how they influence human behavior. In addition, they discussthe relationship between human brain, hormones, nerves and mentalstates to explore how the shape one`s actions, moods, and thoughts.Biological approach belongs to ethological theory and maturationaltheory.
The perspective wasdeveloped by Sigmund Freud who believed sex influence many humans’impulses. Freud held that early childhood experience and unconsciousdrives impacts on ones’ behavior. However, human behaviors are inconflict with societal restrictions. Psychodynamic approach isexplained using Freud’s theory.
Behavioralpsychologists relate human behavior to environmental stimuli. Theybelieve that under intense desire, training can change how onebehaves. Behavioral approach relates to Bandura’s social theory.
Cognitivepsychologists hold that emotions and expectations determine one’sbehavior. One is able to solve challenging situations based onearlier experience. Cognitive approach belongs to Piaget’sdevelopmental theory.
Humanisticpsychologists believe that human beings are motivated to exploittheir full potential. The approach holds that when one feels good, itis easy to fulfill the set goals and needs in life. Humanisticapproach belongs to Vygotsky’s theory.
Question#2: Psychosocial Development Theory Stages by Erikson
Infancy (Birth to18 months) stage-The mother need to nurture a child considering touchand visual contact, for confidence, security and trust development.
Toddler stage (18months- 3 years) – A child is able to build autonomy and self-esteemas he/she learns new skills. In addition, a child is educated aboutright and wrong. Stubbornness, defiance and temper tantrums tend tobe common.
Preschool stage(3-5 years) – In preschool stage, young individuals tend to strugglein identifying social role. Natural hindrances result to one feelingguilt.
School age stage(6-12 years) – Young individuals are capable of acquiring many skillsbut feeling inadequacy affects self-esteem and competence.
Adolescent stage(12-18 years) – In adolescent stage, the growth level depends on whaton does. An individual may withdrawal from adulthoodresponsibilities, which delays adulthood entrance.
Young Adult Stage(18-25 years) – During young adult stage, individuals search forlove and companionship. If one fails to establish deep satisfyingrelationships, isolation results.
Middle-Aged Adult(35-55 years) – Individuals tend to display increased control oftheir lives due to many responsibilities. In addition, workingbecomes the central part of one`s life together with his/her family.
Late Adult (55years- Death) – If one accomplished life desires, according toErikson on reflects back with fulfillment and contentment. If onefailed to contribute significantly to the society, one lives the restof his/her life in despair.
Question#3: Adolescent and Children Common Features in Problem Solving
Both children andadolescents fail to solve a problem if they fail to understand keypoints. Both fail to plan and guess many methods that could work. Inaddition, collaboration with adults has shown to improve children andadolescents in solving challenging situations.
Question#4: Different Memory Strategies
Chucking- Itinvolves grouping information into small bits.
Rhyming- it bases ofthe fact the human beings easily grasp rhythms and themes.
Bridging/Mediation-Bridging connects information under discussion, which improves one’smemory.For instance, Poland SAW War can be bridged to indicateGermans attacked Poland first during the World War.
Bedtime Recital. Itrelies on memorization before one sleeps.
Question#5: Ainsworth’s Attachment Relationships & Strange SituationProcedure
Secure Attachment(60-70 – Children are upset when their mothers leave and are rarelysoothed by strangers. They calm immediately after their mothers’return.
AvoidanceAttachment (15-20%) – Children are not angered by their mothers’departure and show low interest when their caregivers return.
ResistantAttachment (5-10%) – A child under resistant attachment is highlydisturbed when the caregiver leaves, avoids strangers and the motherupon return.
DisorganizedAttachment (5-10%) – Children under this group show sudden emotionspurts with random outbursts. Their behavior is hard to predict.
Question# 6: Self-Esteem in Preschool, High School, Junior High andElementary
Pre-school- developself-esteem through initiative, senses of trust and independence.
Elementary-Self-esteemdepends on how child manages home and learning tasks successfully.
Junior high school-Self-esteem is developed through peers interactions. Positiveinteraction enhances development in games and social interaction.
High school years-Self-esteem is influenced by the environment and comments fromteachers and parents.
Imaginary Audience-refers to a condition where individuals believe people are watchingtheir actions, which releases enthusiasm such as during singingespecially among the teens (Overton, Mueller & Newman, 2012).
Personal Fable- isa believe that an individual is unique, invulnerable and specialamong the teens that lead to engagement in activities such as drugsor driving without a license.
Illusion ofInvulnerability – it refers to a strong mindset that an individualcannot be harmed by anything or anyone. It gives a false securitysuch using a parachute in a tall building.
Question#8: Types of Aggressions
Instrumentalaggression is used to achieve a specific goal for example bombing acity to win a war. Hostile aggressions are associated with anintention to dominate others while reactive aggression results due tothe feeling of anxiety. Relational aggression results when onedamages others social status or relationships.
Question# 9: Male and Female Stereotyping
The culture tendsto classify male as aggressive and capable of handling challengingtasks while the female good at caring for other sibling or householdchores. At school, pre-school and adolescent age male are presumed tobe good at sciences while the female good at languages.
Question#10: Baumrind Parenting Styles
AuthoritarianParenting- Parents expect children to abide by strict rules withpunishment in case of failure.
AuthoritativeParenting- Parents have clear guidelines and rules for the childrento follow. Authoritative parents tend to be forgiving afterdiscussion with their children.
Permissive Parenting–Permissive parents make limited demands on their children andpunishment is rare.
UnresolvedParenting- unresolved parenting is characterized by littlecommunication, low responsiveness, and few demands. Parents aredetached from children, intervening only in severe cases.
Overton, W.,Mueller, U., & Newman, J. (Eds.). (2012). Developmentalperspectives on embodiment and consciousness.Psychology Press.