Plato’sMetaphysics, Epistemology, and Psychology
Q1.(a) Distinction between Genuine Knowledge and Right Opinion
Themethod entrenches the sense of rationalism and empiricism wheremeasurable evidence captures a concept and thus ascertained to exist.In this regard, actual knowledge is considered to be one if it isbased and founded on evidence and discovered principles which areimplicitly acquired from reasoning. Psychologically, culture relieson rationality and logical thinking and should be backed by someelement of truth and information. Opinion is classified as intuition,and thus scholars and philosophers have failed to classify it asknowledge (Popper, 2014). Opinion is a too little way of impartingknowledge and thus seen as just a mere guess.
Itdevelops the criteria which evaluate the claims that one knowssomething. It is proved to be knowledge if one believes that Jonesbelieves that triangle is a three sided shape (Hintikka, 2012). It istrue that a triangle is three-sided, and if it is false then the formdoes not exist. To know something that is non-existent is to knownothing, thus lacking knowledge. It further shows that Jones canjustify that a three sided figure is indeed a triangle by appealingto intuition, reasoning and proving, and sense experience with anexperiment that demonstrates the triangle indeed exist (Popper,2014). If any argument falls short of above description is hearsayand lucky guesses which are opinions or imaginations.
Knowledgeis based on forms and concepts as these two do not change no matterthe situation. Physical objects are real in only they areintelligible, and they are so if they do not alter in the form theyexist. Being intelligible is in itself not changing since if theychange, then things would not be identified as those kinds of things.Knowledge does not alter, and as such, it is intelligible andintellectual regarding form and concept. A mathematical concept doesnot vary, and it helps in identifying the variables with the idea nomatter the condition therein (Popper, 2014). An opinion thus showschanges and rigidity and thus does not qualify to be knowledge buthearsay. A real object is not more real than its model, and as such,images, shadows, reflections are not true and so they areimaginations and as such opinions. Sensual fantasies are opinions,but the concepts on which they rely are knowledge.
Q1. (b) Do you think it is possible to discuss one of the superiorfacets without mentioning one of the other?
Itis not possible. Why?
Epistemologicaland metaphysical approaches are intricate and cannot be divorced asboth define knowledge as conceptual which require understanding andnot mere memorizing and forms which are grasped mathematically andrequire reasoning (Pater, 2015). While discussing epistemology inknowledge, pure reason is entrenched where one takes a mathematicalformula and uses to pass knowledge without changing it but varyingthe variable components of the mathematical problem. As such theformula delivers the reasonability of the concept which makes theform of the equation real and useable while passing the theory ofknowledge (Crombie, 2012). Further, the formula does not change whichis discussed in the metaphysical realm of forms and concepts.
Whileputting metaphysical approach to perspective, the reality of theworld changes is clearly argued using the epistemological methodwhich entrenches the understanding of concepts. Knowledge isunderstandable both in form and concepts and thus requires a graspingmind. While demonstrating that an argument is based on opinion, thepsychological method is used in an interrelated manner whereimaginations bring images. Imagination is done in the mental realmwhile the images occur in the real world where metaphysics prevail.Hearsay produces shadows which are connected to the both methods ofargument (Crombie, 2012). Belief and sense experience areepistemological which show the logics behind classifying an issue orargument as an opinion while the psychological uses the logics andthe evidence that back the opinion to be verified as knowledge or beleft as an idea. According to epistemological approach, an opinion isan imagination and hearsay while in psychological approach, it is anintuition and personal views with uncertainties which culminate intofantasy and comes with images from imaginations.
Q2.(a) The relationship between Psychology, Epistemology, andMetaphysics
Psychologyis the study of human mind and the role it plays in affecting thebehavior of humanity. Epistemology is the study of knowledge theory,the approaches, validity, and scope. It investigates on whatdistinguishes opinion from justified belief. Metaphysics is the studyof reality. It is, therefore, human psychology to seek knowledgewhich will influence the real behavior. The reality is that peoplebehave according to the beliefs they have and the reality that comeswith the conviction. Human beings with their mind create the theorieswhich emanate from the real world in which they live and as suchhuman psychology, epistemology, and metaphysics have I directrelationship that can undeniably be separated. For a person tobelieve in something, the concept of which is identified must begrasped and be understood in the form it is and thus becomes a beliefin the brain of that human being. A mathematician would have tounderstand the concept of the mathematical problem so that he can usethe formula in the form it is and once the concept is proved usingthe form in which the formula is, and then the person believes andbecomes part of life. Human brain imagines, which is psychology, thenepistemology creates the images, where the real world the reality ismade by the person who did all that. Innovation begins with thepsychological part of the human life. Once one visualizes throughimages, then the real form of the pictures are brought out increating the image into an object. Thus, the relationship among thethree is mutually dependent.
Q2.(b) Can the question of ‘what can we know?` be answered withoutasking ‘what is the structure of the mind?` and ‘what is mostreal in the world?`
Knowledgeis classified as one if the person who claims to have it provesbeyond any reasonable doubt that he can support what he knows withevidence, concepts, and forms so that it is not regarded as opinion.The structure of the mind brings the rationale that one argues aboutin the bid to confirm that what he claims to know is a lucky guess,and not an imagination but real regarding form and concept. Thequestion is based on what we can support with evidence in shape andconcept which are the sources, limits, nature, and validity of thatwhich is claimed to be known (Popper, 2015). That is done at theopinion level where it is first made as an intuition that one hasknowledge of something then the intuition is backed by strategies ofargumentation depicting the reasoning which is supportive to theintuition through the structure of the mind. Lastly, sense experienceis then brought when the issue is now made real for the world to seeand say it is indeed true that such and such object exists.
Thequestion cannot be answered until one gets to the level ofconceptualizing the problem, creating the empiricism, and finallydelivering the form of the problem as real, right, and existing sothat it may be called knowledge. The first question is, therefore,dependent on the other two issues as they complement each other. Thestructure of the mind is epistemological, and at the same timepsychological while the metaphysics deal with what is real in theworld (Crombie, 2012). What we know must be made real for theuniverse to see and internalize it as a way of life whichrestructures and forms the mind.
Crombie,I. M. (2012). AnExamination of Plato`s Doctrines Vol 2 (RLE: Plato): Volume 2 Plato
onKnowledge and Reality(Vol. 2). Routledge.
Hintikka,J. (2012). Knowledgeand the Known: Historical Perspectives in Epistemology(Vol.
11).Springer Science & Business Media.
Pater,W. (2015). Platoand Platonism.Walter Pater.
Popper,K. (2014). Conjecturesand refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge.Routledge.