PhysicalProperties of Silicon and Its Application in the Semiconductor
PhysicalProperties of Silicon and its Application in the Semiconductor
Thebreakthrough made in the electronic industry can be attributed to thediscovery of semiconductors and strategies that can be used to adjusttheir conductivity. They are mainly produced from elements in groupIV in the periodic table. Their ability to transmit currency isinfluenced by different factors, including the addition of impurities(Kerrour, Boukabache & Pons, 2012). This paper will provide adiscussion of silicon, which is one of the most common types ofsemiconductors.
EffectThat Impurities Have On the Semiconductor
Semiconductorsare made using elements that have the capacity to facilitate the flowof current, but not at the same level as the good conductors. Theprocess of adding impurities is referred to as doping. Theintroduction of other elements interferes with the efficiency withwhich semiconductors facilitate the flow of current (Kerrour,Boukabache & Pons, 2012). These impurities generate deficiency orsurplus in valence electrons. For example, the n-type impuritiesenhance the capacity of silicon through an increase in the number ofelectrons. The level of conductivity raises depending on the quantityof dopants added. The introduction of p-type impurities, on the otherhand, adjusts the capacity of the semiconductor to transmit currentthrough positively charged holes.
EnergyLevels Following the Addition of Impurities
Impuritiesaffect the energy levels in different ways. The addition of n-typedopants reduces the width of the energy gap that is found in thelattice structure. These impurities add allowable energy levels belowthe semiconductors’ conduction band (Kerrour, Boukabache &Pons, 2012). Additional atoms from impurities are placed far apart,which makes the allowable energy levels to remain discrete.
Theaddition of a p-type impurity leads to the creation of discreteenergy levels above the semiconductor’s valence band. These changesare responsible for adjustment in the conductivity (Lim &Macdonald, 2012). An electron can easily migrate to higher bandssince the distance between discrete and the valence energy levels aresmall. This migration leads to the creation of a vacancy within thevalence band.
Conversionof Silicon to the Connector
Thereare several strategies that may be used to convert silicon to aconnector. The purpose of conversion is to facilitate the flow ofcurrent from one point to another. For example, the development ofmono-crystalline silicon connector is based on a micro-fluidic systemthat feeds the fuel solution to a device that plays the role ofconverting energy (Erteilung, 2012). The gadget operates on theprinciple of electrochemical. The flow connector is made up of asilicon platform with a bottom, a top side, and a hole that extendsthrough. It has two channels that communicate with the opening thatruns through the system.
Definitionof Silicon and Its Application in Electronic Devices
Siliconrefers to a chemical element that is commonly found in glass or sand.Its symbol is “Si” and its atomic number is 14. It is a commontype of isotope has an atomic weight of 28 (RSC, 2016). It exists asa metal-like substance that resembles aluminum in its pure state.Silicon is bound to other compounds in its natural state, and it ismainly found in the earth’s crust. Its level of efficiency inconducting electricity depends on the extent to which impurities havebeen added.
Thereare two key factors that lead to the extensive application ofsilicon. First, it is considered as a semiconductor, which implies ithas the capacity to conduct under certain conditions and serve as aninsulator in some situations. This feature makes the element morepreferable to its alternatives. Secondly, it exists in abundance,which motivates the electronics companies to prefer it over othertypes of semiconductor (Shaltout, Beheary & Ichimoto, 2013). Theavailability of silicon makes it one of the cheapest in the market.
ConvertingSilicon to Negative
Theprocess of adding impurities into semiconductors (such as silicon),with the objective of modulating their electrical properties isreferred to as doping. The impact of impurities depends on the natureof dopants. The n-type element plays the role of donating electronsthat are easily excited. This stimulation enables them to conduct theband. Silicon is converted to negative when the dopants added areelements from group V of the periodic table (Kerrour, Boukabache &Pons, 2012). These impurities increase the number of electrons thatare available for transmission of current. Therefore, the newsemiconductor has higher levels of conductivity than the pure one.
ConvertingSilicon to Positive
Inp-type dopants, a change in the level of conductivity following theaddition of impurities is attributed to empty holes. This occursthrough the acceptance of electrons. The p-type doping can occur whenthe silicon is added a group III element (such as Boron) as animpurity (Kerrour, Boukabache & Pons, 2012). This leads to thecreation of a hole since the dopant has a small number of valenceelectrons compared to the semiconductor, which increases itseffectiveness.
Thebinary interface provides the border between two different programmodules. One of them has to be an operating or the library system.The primary function of the binary interface (BI) is to determine howdifferent functions are called and the format information that needsto be passed from one component of the program to another (Matz,Hubicka, Jaeger & Mitchell, 2013). It covers several details,including the layout of data type, calling convention, and objectfiles’ format. The concept of binary interface is commonly used inthe production of computer programs.
Thedepletion region serves as an insulating layer in a dopedsemiconductor. It is produced by the removal of free carriers ofcharge, which ensures that there is none of them left to transmit thecurrent (Abdullah & Bakour, 2011). Acceptor impurities andionized donors are the only elements that remain in it. The depletionregion develops at once across the p-n junction. The process thatleads to its formation takes place during the steady state or thermalequilibrium. By bringing the N-doped and P-doped semiconductorstogether, electrons and holes tend to migrate to regions with lowerconcentrations. This leads to the formation of a section that cannotallow current to pass through. The concept of depletion region ismainly applied in the production of bipolar transistors, diodes, andvariable capacitance.
Althoughmost of the diodes are made of silicon, there are some that aredeveloped using other materials. The availability of manyalternatives gives consumers an opportunity to choose the mosteffective ones. For example, Ge diodes are made using an elementknown as germanium (Coates, 2016). They are considered to be moreefficient compared to those that are made of other types of elements.Improvements have been made on them, leading to a significantreduction on the amount of current that leaks at the reverse voltage.However, they are easily damaged by heat, which has reduced theirpopularity in the market.
Sediodes or rectifiers are made up of an element referred to asselenium. They are used in chargers of high current batteries andelectric equipments. They are made by stacking steel and aluminumplates. A thick layer of selenium that has been doped with halogen isplaced on top of the metal plating (Coates, 2016). The product isthen annealed in order to turn it into polycrystalline. Thepopularity of this type of rectifier has been reduced by those thatare made using silicon since they are expensive to manufacture.
Theseare special types of rectifiers that permit the current to move in aforward as well as the reverse direction. However, the backward flowtakes place when the voltage exceeds certain limit. They are highlyvulnerable to damage, especially when the current goes beyond therecommended level (Coates, 2016). This spoilage is permanent, whichmakes it necessary to control the amount of electricity that isallowed to pass through.
Thelight-emitting diodes, also referred to as LEDs, are based on a p-njunction. The output produced when a current is passed through rangesfrom blue-violet to red. They are easily excited by the flow ofcurrent, which reduces their risk of getting hot. They can be appliedin remote controls, digital clocks, TV screens, and traffic lights(Wagenaar, 2012). Some of the key benefits of this type of diodeinclude the small size, long life, efficiency, robustness, lowerenergy requirement, and faster switching.
Siliconphotodiodes exist in the solid state and they have the capacity toconvert the light into the electric current. The modern devices aredeveloped using the ion-implantation and planar diffusion methods inorder to increase efficiency as well as the level of reliability(Wagenaar, 2012). The photodiodes are manufactured by bringing then-type silicon into contact with acceptor impurities. The linkbetween the two components leads to the development of a section thatpermits the flow of electrons and holes into their lower potentialregions. They are sensitive to the spectrum of light that rangesbetween 200 and 1,100 nm (Wagenaar, 2012). They can also be operatedin photoconductive and photovoltaic modes, which increase theirapplication in the production of electronics.
PhysicalProperties of Silicon
Theconcept of physical properties is used to describe the features of anelement or a compound that can be observed without converting thesubstance into another. Silicon can be distinguished from otherelements using about eight physical properties. The firstcharacteristic is the color where it appears as a hard and dark graysubstance. The second feature is the phase in which it exists.Silicon is found in the solid state. Third, it has a metallic glow orshine luster. Fourth, it has two allotropic forms, including the darkcrystalline and the brown amorphous. Fifth, it is a substance that issoluble in alkalis and hydrofluoric acid. Sixth, its melting point isestimated to be 1417 0C.Seventh, silicon boils at 2600 degree Celsius (Royal Society ofChemistry, 2016). Lastly, it is classified as a semiconductorelement.
Applicationof Silicon in Production of Computer Chips
Thechips are produced with multiple switches that regulate the flow ofcurrent via complex instructions that are provided in the form ofcomputer code. Silicon is used in the production of these computerchips because it has the capacity to offer the right conductivity(Wagenaar, 2012). Other elements in group IV can also be used.However, there are three factors that make silicon the most preferredelement. First, it is highly stable, which enables it to function asa semiconductor, even at high temperatures. Secondly, it is easier towork with it since producers can introduce impurities without majorcomplications, thus adjusting the level of conductivity to achievethe desired level. Lastly, silicon is cheap, which is attributed toits abundance and the ease of extraction.
PhysicalCharacteristics of LEU
Oneof the most significant characteristics of LEU is the L/I curve thatis used to plot the light output against the current supply. Thisfeature is dependent on level of temperature (Adrio Communication,2016). It is possible to apply the curve in determining the lightoutput at a specific current. The unit is also characterized by theemission of light that takes the form of an oval cone. This featureis attributed to the fact that the aperture of the diode appears as aslit that runs parallel to the junction.
Semiconductorshave made a significant contribution towards the development ofmodern electrons. The usefulness of these elements is attributed tothe fact that their capacity to conduct current can be adjusted tothe desired levels through the introduction of impurities. Silicon isamong the most common types of semiconductors that are commonly usedin the production of electronics. This element is preferred by manycompanies because it is readily available, cheap, and stable. Thesefeatures make it easy for scientists to work with silicon and use inthe production of diodes and computer chips.
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