PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1
Physicaland Cognitive Development
Infantsare breastfed within a short period before they start experiencingweight increase and height growth. Consequently, the young childbegins crawling at the age of five months before walking at the ageof 8 months (Berk & Meyers, 2015). According to my mother, Islightly missed my walking period as I took my first step at the ageof nine months. Furthermore, the development of fine motor skillscharacterized my physical development at an age earlier than that ofmy age mates. Strikingly, my dad recalls that, his friends wouldalways find it fun cuddling with me and they would remark that Iwould grow to be a genius. They had nicknamed me “the advancedinfant” since I had managed to adapt to the environment long beforetheir kids of the same age did.
Supportiveparents are essential in shaping the behavior of the infant. A parentwho supports the child plays a key role in the development of theirrude mental behavior as well as the mechanism of self-acceptance.Having both parents was a privilege to me, and I consequentlydeveloped a secure attachment to both of them. My mother recalls thatI was quick to warm up and adopt a bold nature, unlike other kids whoare always shy.
Class lessonsindicate that the late infancy stage is the beginning of creativityand the children at this stage are usually egocentric. My dad,however, says that I was empathetic and very sensitive to theemotions of my parents particularly my mother. Unlike what studiesreveal about kids, my life did not revolve around my personal needs,but rather, I managed to contain sensations such as hunger and leastare the times that I would cry over food. Lastly, I developed mycognitive and masterly skills of language at a tender age. In fact, Iwould call my dad “Papa” and my mum “mama” unlike other kidswho only knew how to utter sounds like “dada.”
Atoddler is a child between the ages of 1 to 3 years old. Substantialemotional, cognitive and social advancements characterize the toddlerphase (Berk & Meyers, 2015). Notably, toddler comes from the word“toddling,” which means taking steps unsteadily just like a childof this age does. I learned that the toddler could listen andunderstand the names of the people surrounding them as part ofcognitive and language development. However, the manner ofinteraction between the kid and the parent greatly influences howthey relate to other people.
Therefore,having both parents was a privilege as we were very close. I was fondof cuddling with my parents, and many are the times that we wouldplay together. My mom said that she did manage to follow my cues andfrom them, she managed to develop a routine to tend to my individualneeds. As my parents kept me engaged in a series of activities, Ideveloped the skills of containing sensations such as hunger.However, my dad underpins that I was very temperamental. Each timethat I got annoyed, I would walk or crawl away, and I would latermake my way back to him or mom depending on my need.
Notably, justas I had learned in class, at this age, I had made several somaticadvancements. Just as my mother expresses it, I had already doubledin height and weight by the time I was two years old. Additionally, Ihad developed superior skills in walking, scribbling, sitting, propertoilet training and the use of essential tools such as a spoon. Whatintrigued my dad most was my superior hand to eye coordination.Whenever he threw a ball at me, I did not stand a chance of missingto catch it.
Thepreschool age is a period between the age of three and five years ofage where a child experiences rapid growth, also accompanied by theadvancement of fine motor skills (Berk & Meyers, 2015). At thestage, the kid has a good grip on crayons, pencils, and other writingmaterials. What intrigued me most is when my mother told me that Icould even write down a few sentences. Of course, they were notgrammatically correct, but it was an indicator that I was gettingready for school. According to my lower level school teacher, mywriting skills were exemplary, and I did not have a hard timecatching up with the syllabus.
Moreover, thestudies covered in school depicted that the preschool age is theperiod that the kid portrays normal motor capabilities such asbalancing on one foot and playing skipping games. The fact applied tomy life as by this age my mother would scold me countless times forleaving home without her consent. I would sneak out of the house,join my friends and we would play skipping games. Moreover, childrenof this age have advanced vocabularies as they have the excellentskills of uttering sentences of six to ten words. Strikingly mymother told me that I could not only make a few sentences but alsohad mastered how to use past tense.
According tolessons learned in school, the child develops excellent cognitiveskills such as the basic knowledge on less complex subjects such asmoney and time. Conversely, the statement does not insinuate thatthey have sharp thinking skills. In fact, they are poor kids who havea particular manner of thinking characterized by the inability tounderstand abstract notions. The statement is indeed true as, by thisage, I had the knowledge of counting money and would play littletricks on my parents by keeping some coins to myself after being sentto the store. However, as earlier mentioned, the child is still notcreative enough, and so my parents would end up punishing me as theyrealized that I was stealing their money.
As learned inschool, the middle childhood stage is not as vital as the otherphases of development. As a matter of fact, the psychoanalytic theoryby Sigmund Freud insinuates that the stage can also be known as thelatency passage as it encompasses of the period in life where theindividual experiences repressed aggressive and sexual urges (Berk &Meyers, 2015). Moreover, Freud underpinned that there were nosignificant developments in the stage and the minute changes had nosubstantial contributions to the progress of the kid’s personality.The theory is indeed correct as neither my mother nor I can recallany important elements of my life during the stage.
However, morerecent studies have criticized the psychoanalysis theory bypresenting some counter arguments. It is during this middle age thatthe child gets familiar with the values of the society. In otherwords, they argue that this is the integration stage as it entailsthe within development of the individual and within the context ofthe culture as well. The statement is indeed accurate as I can recallthat it is at this age that I finally heeded my mother’s advicethat stealing and playing tricks to the elderly is wrong.
Lastly, thedevelopment of capacitive social and interpersonal skillscharacterizes the stage. For instance, I found myself in a dilemma asmy dad would punish me on a daily basis after having connected withmy mischievous friends and done something naughty. According to whatI learned in class, children at the middle age have a growing peerperspective but are however guided by rigid family rules. It is alsothe stage that one acquires best friends and consequently developsimportant traits of relating with others during the later stages oflife.
According toclass lessons, the adolescence stage is the most complex phase ofdevelopment in the human life. Notably, its definition can takevarious forms such as cultural, physiological and cognitivedescriptions. Therefore, the most concise perspective is the culturaldefinition whereby we understand that the adolescent period begins atsexual maturity of the kid and ends at the establishment of anidentity as an adult (Berk & Meyers, 2015). What is moreintriguing about the stage of life is that females have a more rapidpace of development than males. The statement is evident from thefact that my twin sister grew up rapidly and was almost as big as ourmom. On the other hand, I was still a weakling when compared to her.It took me long before I could catch up.
Notably,adolescence is a crucial stage for the development of reasoningskills. The individual can tactically approach a problem byformulating a hypothesis instead of involving their parents. The factthat many and new challenges face the growing adolescent makes themdevelop mood swings as they try to cope with their emotions.Typically the statement is correct as I can recall my behavior when Iwas fifteen. I would quarrel with everyone in the house over pettyissues and get mad for no reason. All I did was miss my childhoodstages.
To sum up,the adolescence phase is also where one gains influence from themedia. Watching movies bombarded my mind with illogical standards ofbeauty as well as sex and viciousness. Therefore, the exposure bringsabout violence in schools just as I can recall getting suspended fromhigh school after brutally beating a junior student like I saw inmovies. Adolescence is the stage characterized by many syndromes suchas depression and mood swings.
Theyoung adulthood stage is a critical phase of development in humanbeings. Notably, the most remarkable events during the segment arelove connections. The adults gradually develop intimacy, which is thecapacity to stand another individual on a personal level deeply. Frommy experience, this is the stage that I first met Maria beforemarrying her four years down the line. Notably, the young adults whofail to develop intimacy with others are left in a conflict as theyfight the feeling of isolation. The failure to develop an intimacymay be due to the inability to develop a sense of identity asmentioned in the adolescence stage.
Othercharacteristics of the young adult stage include commendable sensoryand physical abilities. The masculine has fully developed muscleswhereas the girl matures into a young a. A man becomes physicallystronger than a lady. With relation to my life, it is the stage thatmy twin sister constantly sought my help on tasks that require mucheffort such as heavy lifting. However, it is also the age that onebecomes exposed to many lifestyle factors such as substance abuse,obesity, and diet. They all have significant impacts on the survivalof a person. Notably, it is also the source of the common myth thatwomen live longer than men. There are no empirical studies to supportthe idea, but several scholars believe that women are more healthconscious than men and that is why they can survive longer.Furthermore, many of the people perish during the young adulthoodstage following accidents, suicide, homicide, heart complications andAIDS. Many of my childhood friends indulged into various immorallifestyles consequently leading to their deaths. Therefore, youngadulthood is indeed the stage that one often suffers from the demiseof their beloved ones (Berk & Meyers, 2015).
Parents whosupport their child play a key role in the development of their rudemental behavior as well as the mechanism of self-acceptance. On theother hand, substantial emotional, cognitive and social advancementscharacterize the toddler phase. Moreover, the preschool age is aperiod between the age of three and five years of age where a childexperiences rapid growth, also accompanied by the advancement of finemotor skills. It is during this middle age that the child getsfamiliar with the values of the society. In other words, it is theintegration stage as it entails within development of the individualand within the context of the culture as well. What is moreintriguing is that adolescence is a crucial stage for the developmentof reasoning skills. The individual can tactically approach a problemby formulating a hypothesis instead of involving their parents. Inconclusion, many of the people perish during the young adulthoodstage following accidents, suicide, homicide, heart complications andAIDS.
Berk, L. E.,& Meyers, A. B. (2015). Infants,children, and adolescents.Pearson.