OVERVIEW: CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD) 8
Overview:Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Overview:Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Coronaryartery disease has been one of the major cause of death anddisability in America, and has affected both male and females. Infact, one of a recent study established that it has caused the deathof more than 33 percent of adults above the age of 35 years in thepast one decade (PrevalenceOf Coronary Heart Disease -United States, 2006–2010" 2011).Also, "HeartDisease Facts & Statistics | Cdc.Gov" (2016)projected that about 50 percent of middle-aged males and 30 percentof females of the same age are at risk of developing the CAD. Thisexplains the presence of about 1.2 million new or recurrent cases ofCAD (Prevalenceof Coronary Heart Disease -United States, 2006–2010" 2016).The development of CAD depends on a wide range of factors fromgenetic variations to lifestyle behaviors (Freire,& Miller, 2015).And when fully developed, the impacts to individual`s health, sociallife, and mental conditions are serious. Numerous studied in the pastfew years has focused on different aspects of CAD including theprevention and treatment. Consequently, important findings havefacilitated the wellbeing of the patients struggling with thedisease.Nonetheless, positive lifestyle changes, proper nutrition, andcontinuous health care are the most effective ‘measures againstboth the emergence and the development of CAD.
Descriptionof Coronary Artery Disease
CADbegins as a plaque that builds up and develop inside the walls of theartery. As a result, the blood ways are reduced and appear blocked inthe chronic stage of the disease. For this reason, blood circulationflows at a lower speed before a complete blockage is mounted by thepersisting plaque deposit (Talavera-Garciaetal.,2016).Also, the blood vessels involved hardens thereby increasing thelikelihood of breaking open. When this happen, the blood spill insidethe cells and tissues inappropriately leading to serious incidencessuch as stroke (when an artery in the brain ruptures) and heartattack. Human blood has a core role of supplying body cells andtissues with air and nutrient (Talavera-Garciaetal.,2016).Therefore, the restriction of blood flow deprives the cells in thebrain and other body parts nutrients and oxygen required formetabolism. In another mechanism, the blood coagulation processcontribute to the emergence and development of CAD. In particular,coagulation factors involved in clotting fail, thereby inducing anabnormal clotting inside the arteries ("HeartDisease Facts & Statistics | Cdc.Gov," 2011).The resultant condition id plaque growth restricted blood flow andoxygen and nutrient deprived cells. Consequently, individualsexperience a wide range of symptoms.
TheSymptoms and Signs of CAD
Asmentioned earlier, CAD conditions develop to the severity dueprolonged lack of oxygen and nutrients. For this reason, the symptomsdevelop in different parts of the body including limbs and brain.
Chestpain (angina) is one common symptom of CAD and occur when the heartmuscles fail to receive enough supply (Mavroudis,Mavroudis, & Jacobs, 2015).Persistent Angina can induces a heart attack, which is the mostfeared symptom of CAD. Similar to angina, a heart attack occurs dueto reduced and completely blocked the supply of oxygen.
Likesome other symptoms of CAD, heart problem develops silently and thepatient may never know it until when a heart attack incidence occur.The reason for this is that the clot formation and deposition ofplaque inside the artery are gradual (Freire,& Miller, 2015).As a result, the seriousness of heart problems increases slowly to afrequent series of a heart attack before death. Another symptomArrhythmia symptom occur as a disrupted or irregular pattern of heartbeats.
Ischemicstroke is a symptom in CAD cases. It occurs due to reduced supply tothe brain. Also, arteries inside the brain rupture thereby leakingthe blood to the surrounding cells (Mavroudis,Mavroudis, & Jacobs, 2015).The consequence is ischemic events and perhaps death. Finally,patients with CAD may exhibit increased body mass due to reactions inthe blood as toxicity in blood increases.
Numerousstudies have focused on the causes and risk factors of CAD.Consequently, a long list of such factors exist. Genetic variation isone cause of CAD and other related diseases. In different studies,CAD has been found having a high prevalence in a particularpopulation of people (Salfati,Herrington, & Assimes, 2016).For instance, the CAD prevalence among the Chinese population wasfound to be occurring as result of variation in genes that codes coresubstances regulating clotting and coagulation of blood.
Theother cause of CAD is the lifestyle behaviors such as smoking,alcohol drinking, and drug use. The chemical in these substancesespecially the nicotine and tar in cigarettes interferes with heartrate and increase the rate of blood clots within the arteries.Nutrition also contributes to the prevalence of disease (Freire,& Miller, 2015).For instance, foods with too much cholesterol and sugar can increaseblood sugar. In case the pancreas fail to produce insulin, orautomatic immune protocols reject it, the toxicity in blood therebyinducing blood clot.
Finally,several diseases are risk factors for CAD due to their influence inemergence and development of the disease (Freire,& Miller, 2015).These diseases include diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. The reasonfor this is that they induce the plaque formation and clottingprocess.
Accordingto Salfati,Herrington, and Assimes, (2016),physicians diagnose CAD based on the previous medical and familyhistory. In addition to these, a physical examination is conductedto determine the surfacing symptoms. Consequently, results areobtained, and treatment can be administered to help the patients.
Onetesting method is by the use of EKG (Electrocardiogram). It is asimplified and painless procedure tool that can detect and record theheart`s performance. In this case, it can reveal facts heart rate,slow blood or blocked blood flow. The other is Stress Testing. Duringthis test, patients are required to strain their body by exercising(Mavroudis,Mavroudis, & Jacobs, 2015).As a result, physicians can uncover arrhythmia, palpitations, andangina.
Ablood test is another technique for obtaining patient` status of CAD.In this case, cholesterol, fats, proteins and sugar contents arestudied to check any abnormal level or concentration.Endocardiography is another technology that uses heartbeat sound todevelop the images of the heart thereby mapping the shape and size ofthe heart chambers, arteries, and valves.
Finally,modern doctors have adopted the use of Coronary Angiography andCardiac Catheterization. Angiography is used to test the likelihoodof developing CAD (Mavroudis,Mavroudis, & Jacobs, 2015).The Catheterization process involves deposition of a special die inblood system that can be visible through the x-ray machine. That way,doctors can identify the points of blockage, rapture, and narrowedarteries.
TheTreatment of CAD
Thetreatment of CAD take different forms depending on the severity ofthe condition. In this case, a patient with undeveloped CAD mayreceive light treatment to reduce the formation of plaque while thosewith acute CAD may undergo surgery to enclose a ruptured artery orremove a plague that blocks the blood.
Onetreatment procedure for unblocking the plaque is PercutaneousCoronary Intervention that involve inserting a thin tube into theblocked artery, and then removing or compressing the plaque to openwide the artery for improved blood flow (Talavera-Garciaetal.,2016).Modern tubes used in this practice have a balloon at the end tosanction or compress the tube.
Theother technique is the Coronary Artery Bypassing Grafting and involveintercepting the blocked artery and then diverting it through theneighboring vessels. Consequently, the blood flow is bypassed, andeffective supply of oxygen occurs.
ThePrevention of the Disease
Theprevention of CAD has been identified as any procedure or behaviorthat reduce abnormal coagulation and clotting of blood. In this case,such prevention measures should prevent deposition of poisonouschemicals in the blood system and reduce impacts of diseases that arerisk factors. The key prevention intervention involve healthy livingand includes avoiding drug use, alcohol drinking, cholesterol freediets and reduced starch in food. Also, increased physical excursivehelp keep fit while at the same time burning extra sugar and fats(Talavera-Garciaetal.,2016).Moreover, continuous care and treatment for the patients strugglingwith diseases such as diabetes and hypertension can also help improvethe patients1 wellbeing.
CoronaryArtery Disease is a serious health issue in America and requirescombined effort from the medical and learning institution,government, individuals and communities to empower the public onprevention and treatment efforts. It has caused many deaths whileputting a significantly larger proportion of American at risk.However, while the major causes of CAD are globally recognized asunhealthy lifestyle, diet and some chronic diseases, the biggest rolelies in the hands of Americans to ensure they make a positive shifttowards the prevention of disease. Also, continuous research isimportant to expand the understanding further and probably theinvention of new treatment and cure.
"HeartDisease Facts & Statistics | Cdc.Gov". Cdc.gov.N.p., 2011. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.
"Prevalenceof Coronary Heart Disease — United States,2006–2010". Cdc.gov.N.p., 2016. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.
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Mavroudis,C., Mavroudis, C. D., & Jacobs, J. P. (2015).Repair techniques for anomalous aortic origins of the coronaryarteries. Cardiology in the Young,25(8), 1546-1560. Doi: 10.1017/S1047951115002048
Salfati,E. L., Herrington, D. M., & Assimes, T. L. (2016). Associationsbetween a Genetic Risk Score for Clinical CAD and Early Stage Lesionsin the Coronary Artery and the Aorta.PlosONE,11(11), 1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166994
Talavera-Garcia,E., Delgado-Lista, J., Garcia-Rios, A., Delgado-Casado, N.,Gomez-Luna, P., Gomez-Garduño, A., & … Lopez-Miranda, J.(2016). Influenceof Obesity and Metabolic Disease on Carotid Atherosclerosis inPatients with Coronary Artery Disease (CordioPrev Study).Plos ONE, 11(4), 1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153096