ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE
Publicorder is an essential element in various communities. It ensures thatpeople behavior in the right way in the public space. It promotesrespect between individuals and thus, preventing violation ofsomeone’s rights. It is the responsibility of police agencies toensure the existence of public order in the communities they serve.These agencies deploy various strategies to facilitate order in thecommunity. However, when law enforcers lack an effective leadershipand order, the implementation of the strategies cannot be successful.Police officers are among the key stakeholders who implement policingstrategies. According to Borkowski N. (2016), their participation inthe process becomes limited when their leadership is not competent.Competence in an organization refers to the possession of all therequired abilities for a person to behave and act as expected.Leadership competence influences the performance of individual policeofficers through the promotion of certain behaviors. As a result, thelaw enforcers will actively involve themselves in activities thatensure the achievement of order in the public space. Yang, Yen &Chiang (2012) carried out a study to determine the impact ofleadership competence on policy project performance and project teamperformance. They also assessed the mediating role of project teamcontentment on the relationship between leadership and projectoutcome. This paper evaluates the study findings on organizationalleadership and behavior.
Acompetent leadership of a police agency is associated withcontentment of the project team and the success of policing programs.
Yang, Yen & Chiang (2012) conducted a survey using questionnairesto evaluate police leaders’ competence, the contentment of teammembers and the success of policing programs. They employedstructural equation modeling (SEM) to validate their study model.This technique is a combination of factor analysis and multipleregression analysis. The investigators employed it to assess therelationship between leadership competency, project team satisfactionand behavior, and the performance of policing programs. SEM wasappropriate for this study since it enabled the investigators todecompose relationships between the variables and the total effect ofpredictor variables into direct effects. The factor analysis enabledYang, Yen & Chiang (2012) to confirm the effect of leadership onproject performance.
Thefindings indicated that leadership had a positive correlation withoverall behavior and satisfaction of team members as well as theproject performance. The relationship between project teamcontentment and the performance of policing strategies was affectedby complexity, workload, method, project duration, leadership, andmanagement. Yang, Yen & Chiang (2012) recommended that policedepartments should improve their leadership competencies in order toguarantee the success of police projects and job satisfaction of lawenforcers.
Concepts, principles, and strategies
Themain concepts addressed in this study include leadership, competence,satisfaction, and performance. Leadership is the process ofpersuasion by which an individual or a team induces a group of peopleto take action towards the achievement of organizational goals.Leadership is responsible for the governance of police departmentsand their operational activities and processes. It influences theoperations of the organization through various ways. Leadership isresponsible for the creation of a conducive environment for promotingthe desired behavior. Leaders in police agencies should not onlycreate the pleasant atmosphere but also lead by example.
Theeffectiveness of a leader is dependent of his/her competency. Thereare three categories of competencies that an effective leader musthave. They are professional, leadership, and core competencies.Competency refers to the abilities of a person required for aparticular position. The individual is not fit for given post ifhe/she lacks specific abilities. Borkowski N. (2016) argues thatcompetency is most accurately described as the capacity of a leaderto utilize opportunities, create and maintain an appropriateorganizational behavior, and improve the performance of strategies.
Acompetent leadership ensures the satisfaction of project team membersthrough their involvement in the decision-making process andrepresentation of their concerns in every undertaking of theorganization. The satisfaction of team members increases theiradherence to the organizational culture, teamwork and theirindividual performance (Allen & Sawhney, 2014). Organizationalbehavior is a reality if only every individual in the policedepartment abide by it. Therefore, leadership mediates therelationship between project team satisfaction and organizationalbehavior.
Ethicalconduct is another important concept in organizational leadership.According to ethics, law enforcers should behave and act in a waythat is consistent with organizational culture (Allen & Sawhney,2014). The introduction and advancements in information technology(IT) present ethical issues in criminal justice system. Criminaljustice organizations have employed IT in their operations. It can beused in monitoring suspects and individuals on probation. This mayinfringe the privacy of individuals. Ethical leadership is necessaryfor making decisions in challenging situations to achieve the desiredoutcome.
Thestudy by Yang, Yen & Chiang (2012) made a great contribution tothe criminal justice knowledge through their results. In order forpolice departments and other criminal justice organization to achievesuccess in the strategies they implement to maintain order, they needto improve their leadership competencies. Factors such asorganizational leadership, project team satisfaction, and ethicsinfluence organizational behavior.
Allen, J. M., & Sawhney, R. (2014). Administration andManagement in Criminal Justice: A Service Quality Approach. SAGEPublications, Inc.
Borkowski, N. (2016). Organizational behavior, theory, anddesign in health care. Jones & Bartlett Learning
Yang, L. R., Yen, H. F., & Chiang, Y. F. (2012). A framework forassessing impacts of leadership competency on police projectperformance: Mediating role of job satisfaction and moderating roleof project type. Policing: An international Journal of PoliceStrategies & Management, 35(3), 528-550.