Migrationand Globalization Whether the World Is Becoming More Migratory
Migrationand Globalization Whether the World Is Becoming More Migratory
Asmuch as there are beliefs in the volume, scope of geography,diversity and the whole nature of the international case of migrationas the cause of the process of globalization, fewer tests havehowever been done in the area. The aim of this paper is to carry outan analysis of the global shift in migration as they took placeduring 1960 and 2000 through an application of changes taking placein distance, spread, and intensity of the process of migration.Despite the outcomes with the challenge against the perception onincrement in the scope of coverage and intensity of movement, themajor shifts have however remained to be directional in their nature.Consequently, there has been a skewed nature in the global migration.
Acommon assumption is always taken that international migration hasincreased in the last fifty years. Also, the assumptions have wellbeen that migrants tend to cover long distances, and also the aspectof migration have ended up into being more diverse on the origins anddestinations where the migrants take (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).The idea, in this case, relies on the ever rising number of new,though small, various origins, internationally associated, socio andeconomic differentiated and also legally type of stratifiedimmigrants who of late reached and made the settlement in theirdesignated societies. Another argument that has also been in place isthat due to the increment levels of integration among societies atinternational levels, many nations are as continuing to experiencemajor immigration and emigration volumes. Combining all these trendsgive the suggestion of the patterns of global levels of migrations asbecoming more complicated (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).The instance here is in opposition to the assumption given to lowerincidences of diversity and neat structures if the previous cases ofmigration, where all give a defined scope between migration andimmigration on the way they would have all taken place in variouscountries. At the same time, this aspect also has linkage with theidea that the migration that took place in the past had often itsconcentration in less bilateral corridors that had frequencies ofrelying on colonial and historical linkages (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).For example, major cases migrants that underwent the transformationfrom Francophone Africa opted to move to France while those of theAnglophone made their decision in moving to the UK. Recently, thesaid patterns here seem to be more diverse due to the fanning of themigration in new places in areas such as Southern Europe, Asia andGulf regions (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).The assumptions in the increment in volume, diversification, scope ofgeography and the whole complexity of the issue of internationalmigration that always have linkages in transportation andcommunication technological advancements and the process ofglobalization. At this juncture, globalization may refer to wideningand deepening as well as speeding in the global interconnection inall scopes of contemporary social life.
Globalizationneed to simultaneously given consideration as the process involveboth politics and technology with it (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).Advancement in technology has for example resulted in the radicalreduction in traveling costs and communication that involve longdistances. The assumption here is that change in technology hasbrought changes in migration in conjunction with increment in thediversity of the geographical pathways despite being threefold innature. For instance, change in technology has led to the reductionof resource constraints on their mobility thus leading costreductions in both transport and communication. On a second note,migrant networks with more strength, as well as the transitionalties, are also making it very much easy in remaining in touch withrelatives, money contribution plus also making travels betweendestination and countries origins (Czaika& de Haas, 2014). The increment in the levels literacy and education has both resultedin improvement in the global awareness based on technologicaladvancements such as televisions, phone technology and the internettechnology that all have led to increased awareness among people andother unknown regions. However, it becomes important to stress in themodern case of globalization that not only gets accelerated with theprogress in technology but also with the inclusion of both changes inideologies and politics.
HistoricalContext: TheGlobalization of Migration Since 1960
Firstly,the countries within Europe had massively come into latest stages oftransition in migration with those nations that were undergoing atransformation starting from high emigration to high cases ofemigration countries (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).The instance has a linkage with wider patterns in migrations. Forexample, for all along, Europeans have always had a movement inoutwards based where they seek to conquer, colonize, occupy, escapeand make settlements in places around the globe. The patterns havehad reversals in the next portion of the twentieth part of thecentury. Due to the decolonization impacts, demographic changes(Czaika& de Haas, 2014),drastic growth in the economy and the establishment of EuropeanUnion, by being a free trade and zones of migration thus leading tothe expansion of the issue of global migration.
Thedecrement in the value of Europe as the migrants` source has alinkage with the basic shifts in the pattern of global migration.Decrease in the emigration among the Europeans had a coincidence withthe patterns of the second movement shift that is the increment inimmigration from the Asian region and the Latin America to theancient traditional nations of settlement such as Australia, NewZealand and Canada (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).Most Latin American countries had experiences of major immigrationdecrease and rapid increment in emigration though some nations suchas Panama, Brazil, and Peru all experienced cases reverse transitionsof migration net immigration to emigration nations. The instancehere gives a reflection of the decline in the Latin America`sposition in the global ranking regarding wealth and decreasinginstances of immigration within Europe that was originally theancient of the America`s immigrants.
Anotherchange has involved the emergence in the global incidences ofmigration in outside areas of America, Australia, New Zealand andEurope and as well as the Persian Gulf areas. Others include theSingapore, Korea, and Japan. On the other hand, in the period of1960, Italy, Greece, Spain and UK were the major countries ofemigration (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).In the year 2000, their role was overtaken by other countries such asBangladesh, Philippines, Mexico, India, Turkey, Morocco, Vietnam,Egypt and Indonesia. Though China remains to be a basic origin, thetotals are indeed very low in comparison to the total population.Added to the same, the absolute has experienced changes in the lastfour decades, thus giving a suggestion of the declining rates inemigration.
Theconcept here involves the differentiation of the spread in the globaltype of immigrant and emigrant case of populations based on place oforigin and destination kind of nations in that order. For thisreason, the concept presented here offers various measures that leadto capturing of three different points (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).First of all is the global immigrant spread that gives themeasurement of the level where the total migrant population, ESglobalhas its dispersal across destined countries while the global type ofimmigrant spread ISglobal giving an indication of the level where theglobal type of migrant case of population that has its roots from a diversity of set countries in respect totheir origin as
Thedetermination of the above values gives a revelation of the trendsapplicable in the global population dispersion of both immigrants andthe emigrants (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).Though immigrant populations originate from the increasing divergencein many countries, they have always tried to give concentration onincreasing small cases of destination countries. In other meanings,shrinking cases of original cases of migration destination tend tooffer the attraction to increasing cases diversity of nations.
Amajor observation finds out that young nations have the greatestlevels globalized kind of migration thus, in this case, gives anindication of that nation and overseas with territories that havesmall populations that are more prevalent for migration when comparedto populated nations (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).Over the last four decades that lies between 1960 and 2000, close tothree-quarters of almost top twenty migrations and globalized nationswere small by being defined with populations of less than 5,000. Following this definition, nearly a third of all nations andterritories overseas within databases were indeed very small in theyear 1960. Small countries, for example, have overrepresentation inboth aspects of emigration and immigration of diversificationsaspects (Czaika& de Haas, 2014). The set of these small countries couples cases of higher degrees ofemigration dispersion contrarily take a rather different aspect fromother small countries that harbor higher diversified cases immigrantpopulation (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).For example, at the peak of the dispersed types of populations, thereare many occasions developing islands classified as migrant-sendingnations such as Cape Verde, Suriname or Samoa while varied groups ofsmall nations with higher levels of diversified immigrant populationare indeed the wealthiest lots in the world. The populations arenations such as Kuwait, Monaco, Cayman Islands, Qatar and Bermuda.
EffectOn the Migrant, Home Society, and Recipient Society
Dueto cases in the European immigration in other continents, cases ofmajor shifts in a manner of global migration coupled with Europe’stransformation beginning areas covered by emigrants and settlers whosometimes find their way in the global migration magnet. The instancehere has resulted to increment in the availability of thephenotypically and cultural cases of distinct immigrants in Europeplus also other settler societies of European descent in NorthAmerica and Pacific. In other meanings, the increment in spread basedon origin countries of migrants for every use, the national andethnic concerned with immigrant populations has for sure beenconversant with non-European (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).The instance here remains a significant observation based on analysisof globalized from a country perspective in comparison to the view ofa country of origin. In this regard, it gives an implication thatmigrants that originate from a broad, diverse array of sources notrelated to Europeans nations have always had the concentration in theshrinking pool of the principal countries of destination. Inconsequence, it has led to the global map type of migration beingskewed in nature.
Variousissues may give the explanation for immigration diversification. Oneof these issues is that over the last decades, the first Communistand upcoming nations have done away with restrictions on theircitizens` emigration thus enabling accessibility on opportunities ininternational migration (Czaika& de Haas, 2014).For example, the collapse of Communism has been the cause ofdiversity in the immigrants’ populations in Europe. In consequence,it has form part of the shift in the general ideologies headedtowards liberalization in the economy where aspect in emigration andremittances has emerged to be the possible driving factors for growthin an economy.
Aboutnon-acceleration case of global case of migration, many researchstudies have attributed this to the increment in restrictions inmovement(Czaika & de Haas, 2014).The argument in place, in this case, is that though policies withinstates have supported both flows within capital and trade, a majorityof states still have ensured the reinforcement of their control overthe issue of migration and also taking into consideration thatmigration would not have formed part of the process of globalization.Based on this fact, it is then evident that movement has notexperienced an accelerated pace when compared to capital flow andtrade in both goods and services.
Themanner in which to give the explanation for the patterns of globalmigration being more skewed based on an increasing diversity ofnations with the concentration on shrinking pool of destinationcountries is indeed wanting. One of the likely explanations for thegrowing skewness of migration based on globalization conditions isthat people fail to understand the nature of the process ofglobalization. As much as there is always an argument thattechnological process and the increasing interconnectivity haveresulted into flattening of the world and causing global opportunitystructures into being more egalitarian, in the real sense, thecontemporary case of globalization has had high incidences of aprocess of asymmetry.
Czaika,M. & de Haas, H. (2014). The Globalization of Migration: Has theWorld Become More Migratory?. InternationalMigration Review, 48(2),283-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imre.12095