LowerSocioeconomic and Mental Illness
LowerSocioeconomic and Mental Illness
Recentstudies have indicated that the poorer the socioeconomic situation ofan individual is, the higher the risk for mental illness the personis facing. The findings showed that there is a negative relationshipbetween socioeconomic status (SES) of a person and mental illness.However, there are several inconsistency studies on the causalframework of the relationship (Molarius et al., 2016). Other scholarshave also questioned whether poor economic situations exposesindividuals to mental disabilities, or whether the pre-existingbiological related mental illnesses lead to drift of persons intopoor socio-economic situations. On the same line, other findings haveshown that it is the non-linear interaction of the socioeconomicfactors such as unemployment, inadequate family support, lack ofautonomy, noisy work environments that act as the mediating factor tocause mental illness. However, there is little research on the causalrelationship between the socioeconomic factors such as lack ofeducation, lower incomes, and the occupation of an individual, withmental illness. As such, this study aims at assessing therelationship between the socioeconomic factors and mental illness toplan for health care and find preventive measures that can beimplemented to help reduce the mental illness associated with thesocioeconomic factors.
Further,studies indicate that individuals from lower socioeconomicbackgrounds are twice likely to suffer from mental illness ascompared to those come from a higher socioeconomic status backgroundirrespective of the childhood socio-demographic elements, forinstance, family history of mental illness, and adult socioeconomicsituation (McLaughlin et al., 2012). Similarly, poverty may act as aneconomic stressor on the form of unemployment and lack of affordablehousing, which increases the likelihood of mental illness as comparedto the reverse (Anisman, 2015). In the same line, studies have alsoshown that adults of the lower socioeconomic status have an increasedprobability of suffering from mental illness than the ones with highsocioeconomic status (Rogers, A., & Pilgrim, 2014). Additionally,prevalence is highest among individuals with the lowest family incomelevels and lowest among the people from higher income level families(Sareen et al., 2011). Similarly, the prevalence of mental illness ishighest among the persons who receive Medicaid than those who useprivate health insurance to cater for their medical needs. With dueconsideration to the fore mention factors, it is arguable thatpoverty is linked to mental illness.
Statementof the problem
TheUnited States has faced the problem of mental illness among thepoorer in the past decades. Previous studies have concentrated muchon the large scale and in most cases, longitudinal data sets for themain aim of establishing the causal relationship betweensocioeconomic factors and mental illness (Rentmeester, 2013). Duringthe last decade, findings have indicated that social selection theorymight act a crucial element in determining the inverse relationshipbetween SES and mental illness. A version of the theory known as thegeographic drift hypothesis indicates that mentally ill personstranslate to low-income communities due to their disabilities,probably triggered by their lower standards of living (Sareen et al.,2011). As such, it arguable that poor mental health influencesnegatively, the social and economic circumstance for both the societyand the individual (Rogers & Pilgrim, 2014). A study conductedover a period of seventeen years revealed that low parental educationcould predict the risk of depression for their children (Dalgard etal., 2016). Similarly, a 3-year study carried out in the New Yorkcommunity aimed at finding the causal relationship between mentalillness and occupation of an individual showed that higher statusoccupations involving control and planning were related to thereduction of the risk of depression (Rogers & Pilgrim, 2014).These studies failed to establish how the socioeconomic factors andthe mental health of an individual are related. This leaves thequestion as to whether low socioeconomic factors lead to mentalillness or whether mental illness exposes an individual into poverty.
Currently,the prevalence of mental health symptoms in the United States hasrisen among the poor people whose income is below $20,000 per annum(Sareen et al., 2011). However, the existing studies have done lessto ascertain the relationship between mental illness and lack ofeducation, lower incomes, and the type of occupation theseindividuals have (Molarius et al., 2016). As a result of thisincrease in mental illness among these poorer class, there is theneed for a better comprehension of the relation between socioeconomicfactors so as to design and plan the preventive measures and healthcare to deal with the mental illness (Sareen et al., 2011).Similarly, studies also show that when faced with mental illnesses,women can easily access medical care because they are more willing toaccept the distresses they have than men. There is therefore, theneed to understand the difference in gender seeking of assistance forpsychiatric treatment on top of the socioeconomic burden imposed onthe poor individuals. The purpose of this research is to evaluate therelationship between the socioeconomic factors such as education,occupation, and income with mental illness. The following objectiveswill guide this research.
To evaluate whether the lack of education results in mental illness among the lower socioeconomic class in the U.S.
To investigate the relationship between income and mental illness.
To assess whether the type of occupation individuals have influenced their mental illness in the long run.
What is the relationship between lack of education and mental illness among the individuals in the lower socioeconomic position in the U.S?
Is there an association between income and mental illness?
What is the relationship between mental illness and the type of occupation one has?
H1:Deficiency in socio-economic factors cause mental illness.
Purposeof the Study
Thisstudy aims at assessing the relationship between the socioeconomiccondition of a person and mental illness. Once a clear cut has beenmade concerning the association, the information can be used byhealth professionals to design counseling and preventive measures tocontrol mental illnesses related to the socioeconomic factors, whichinclude income, education, and occupation. It has been noted thatmental illness has large health care cost implications to thesociety, which has both economic and social consequences for theperson as well as the entire community. As a result, the presentresearch aims at identifying the kind of association that existsbetween these socio-economic factors and mental health to help in theformulation of plans to assist in reducing the societal costsassociated with mental illness.
Mentalhealth has gained much recognition as a result of the increase in thecases of mental disorders linked to the poor socioeconomic status ofindividuals in the United States (Rentmeester, 2013). Thesocioeconomic factors under consideration in this study include lackof education, type of occupation, and the income level of people.Results from past studies have indicated a strong association betweenmental illness and incomes, working situations, and major cruciallife events (Rentmeester, 2013). Mental illness varies acrossdifferent individuals depending on the socioeconomic condition aperson is experiencing. They include anxiety disorders, depression,psychotic disorders, Stress response syndromes, and Somatic symptomdisorders (McLaughlin et al., 2012). This review will consider thestudies that have been conducted, which relate to education, incomeand occupation, and how these factors influence the mental health ofan individual (Anisman, 2015). In most cases, people with lowersocio-economic status tend to have poor mental health than peoplewith higher, socio-economic status.
MentalHealth Implications of Lack of Education
Itis common that mental illness is characterized by the extent to whichit disrupt the ability of an individual to function well. Theinabilities include the inability to learn, or even work. Previousstudies have confirmed that the level of individuals’ educationinfluences their mental health status (Dalgard et al., 2016). Inparticular, the findings showed that individuals with a pooreducation standard experience a higher risk of experiencing mentalillness. The reason behind the findings is linked to the idea thatpersons from poorer background in most cases do not have access tothe best teaching standards (Netdoctor, 2015). However, the resultsalso showed that a lower standard of mental well-being does notguarantee mental illness, but closely linked to mental healthproblems (Rentmeester, 2013). In a study conducted by healthprofessionals in England where the participants were ranked accordingto the scale of their feeling good and functioning well since thedoctors believed that it was a good indicator of a good state ofmental health.
Theresearch also found that persons with stronger sense of psychologicalwell-being were considerably happier and satisfied with their currentsituation as well as throughout their lives (Fortinash &Holoday-Worret, 2012). When the “well-being and feel functioningwell” factors were measured alongside the individuals’ educationstandards, the results indicated that the factors did not play a roleof influencing a person’s mental illness (Dalgard et al., 2016).However, the findings in this study are controversial since it isexpected that socio-economic factors to be related to mental healthillness would as well be associated with mental illness. It is alsoexpected that if low education is strongly correlated with mentalillness, then high educational attainment would be as well stronglyrelated to mental health well-being.
LowIncome influence on Mental Health
Inthe recent years, there have been concerns about the influence of theworld economic recession and mental illness. Individuals with mentalillnesses are subjected to chronic poverty resulting frominsufficient income (Netdoctor, 2015). The current findings show thatthe association between income and mental illness are of two-fold. Insome studies, the lower the income level of an individual, the higherthe risk of mental illness an individual is facing whereas otherstudies have not found this association. Similarly, it noted thatlow levels of income increase the levels of mental disorders(McLaughlin et al., 2012). The low-income households are also linkedto many lifetime mental illnesses as well as suicide attempts and useof substance disorders as compared to households with higher levelsof income (Sareen et al., 2011). These individuals of lower incomeoften experience increased risks of anxiety, substance utilization,and incidences of mood anxiety disorders as compared with personswith higher incomes. However, other studies found that the existenceof mental illnesses does not necessarily raise the risk of change inpersonal income. These studies concluded that the lower levels ofhousehold incomes are associated with many mental illnesses andattempts of suicides (Sareen et al., 2011). Similarly, the reductionin household incomes is related to an increase in the risk of mentalillness. As such, the studies suggest that policymakers need to takeinto consideration the optimal techniques of intervention for themental illnesses and suicidal behaviors experienced by the low-incomeearners.
Occupationand mental health
Inpast decade, there has been a shift in the concentration ofoccupational health from the physical hazards in the place of workthat influences the psychological or mental health status of anindividual. The majority of the employees spend a lot of time intheir occupational settings (Fortinash & Holoday-Worret, 2012).However, considering the dynamic nature of work, it is crucial tocomprehend the manner in which psychological work surroundings andoccupation in itself leads to psychological distress and mentalillnesses as well as to the well-being of an individual. Differentoccupations have different levels of stressors that are capable ofcausing mental health problems (Anisman, 2015). Stressful occupationare associated with higher rates of mental illness as compared tooccupations with fewer stressors. Studies indicate that stress atwork increases the psychological and mental health problems(Fortinash & Holoday-Worret, 2012). In any workplace, there arestressors which are capable of either positively, or negativelyimpact a person’s health (Rentmeester, 2013). The stressors mightlead to stress responses referred to as stress by individual. Themental outcomes of stress include depression, anxiety, emotionalexhaustion, and a decrease in personal accomplishment (Fortinash &Holoday-Worret, 2012).
Furtherstudies have also indicated that of the most stressful occupationsinclude typing, sales, clerical jobs, professional specialties suchas law, teaching, nursing and counselors (Anisman, 2015). In general,studies have ascertained that there is a significant differencebetween different occupation categories. Studies have found that theprevalence rates by data entry ind1vidualsas well as computeroperators is high as compared to other professions. Additionally,occupational positions such as managerial, technical occupations havea very low prevalence of depression.
Thisresearch will be based on quantitative research design. The primaryvariable will be lower socioeconomic status (SES) population and themental illness. This study paper will show how a lack education,income, and occupation, can result in poverty and possibly causesomeone to suffer from stress and mental illness. These variablesseem to have a relationship between lower socioeconomic status, andmental illness in America. The relationship between the two factorsis the social problem that needs to be addressed and needs moreinformation to determine the hypothesis and the conclusion (Rogers &Pilgrim, 2014). Even though the currently available studies of lowersocioeconomic status and mental illness reveal strong causationbetween the two, there are no findings associated with therelationship between mental disorder and lower income, economic, andunemployed that often develop to depression and anxiety.
TargetPopulation and Sampling technique
Thisresearch will use randomly sampled population from a small group of40 people within the range age of 25-84 years, as this is thepopulation that is expected to be of the working age and havecompleted their studies. For the random selection, 20 individualswill be chosen at work and 20 people from a local University locatedfive miles from the researcher’s home to act as the sample for thestudy. The researcher will also have each group answer a 6-questionsurvey. The response will be rated on the nominal scale. This samplewill help the researcher to formulate the opinion of correlation oflower socioeconomic (SES) and mental health. The results will beuseful as they might be utilized to help in the determination of howmany people who have experienced this low socioeconomic status andmental illness versus individuals with higher socioeconomic statusand education without having to deal with mental illness. A randomsample of 20 persons will be surveyed at work on their level ofeducation, annual income, marital status, education, and occupation.Similarly, through the finding, it will determine how many peoplesuffer from depression, anxiety or mental illness due to lack ofeducation, income, and occupation. Most of all, the community willwant to support the study because it is a critical issue in America.However, this study will exclude individuals below the age of 25years, as they are considered not mature enough to find jobs, andsome are still schooling.
Methodsof data Collection
Thisresearch will mainly make use of survey questionnaires as a tool fordata collection. The questionnaires will be sent to a randomlyselected participant within the researcher’s locality. The mentalhealth symptoms will be measured through anxiety/depression sixquestions also known as EQ-5D, 6thquestion. The EQ-6D is a standardized mechanism comprising of fivequestions used to measure health associated quality of life (Molariuset al., 2016). The respondents will be required to complete thequestionnaires within four days. In this study, the use of surveyswill provide an effective and cost-efficient techniques of surveyingmany people (Murtagh & Heck, 2012). Similarly, since they areself-administered, the respondents will probably feel more inclinedto give an honest response to sensitive questions. As such the surveywill be generalized to a particular group by use of random samplingmethodology.
Notably,this is a quantitative study in which the null hypothesis 1: is:Deficiency socioeconomic cause mental illness. It will be conductedwith 40 adults aging from 25 to 65 years old. 20 participants wouldbe randomly selected from a local university and the other 20participants would be randomly selected from local shopping centerwithin 20 miles from the researcher’s home. A consent form will beprovided before the survey is given. The participants will be informthat this is a class project and that it is voluntary to participate,before they sign the consent form. The variables are socioeconomicwhich its attributes are gender, age, income, occupation, andeducation. Mental illness and it development of depression andanxiety. Those participating in the study will be ask to take the5-question survey. The researcher will also collect journal articleto compare the result of this survey. After collecting the data, theresult will be recorded using Microsoft Excel. The question that aregoing to be ask include the following: what is your gender, Male orFemale? What is your age? What is your income bracket? What isoccupation professional or non- professional? What is the highestlevel of education you achieved? After a typical days work, how doyou feel? Good, tried. Stress, or have a lot of energy?
Beforedata analysis, the collected information on the social-economicfactors and mental health will be evaluated to remove extremeobservations and check for missing data. Descriptive statistics willbe used to do the analysis of the socio-economic data which includeeducation, income, and occupation. The researcher will review theaccuracy and precision of the data collected. Calculations on aseries of cross tabs will be done to illustrate the relationship thatexists between the variables and derive total scores on each of thethree variables by using Pearson Chi-square test. The statisticaltechnique is ordinal scale that would be used to measure the resultby using the Microsoft Excel software. This software would explainquantitative data and it effectiveness about causal relationship ofsocioeconomic and mental illness.
Notably,t-tests will be used to determine whether differences existed betweenany two variables that will be statistically significant. Theresearcher will use the t-test to compare any two groups ofindependent variables on a dependent variable. Similarly, theresearcher will use the p-value to assess whether differences existbetween groups and if present, is it statistically significant? Thep-values are set at (p>0.05) when there is a high probability thatgroups that are compared are not distinct (Murtagh & Heck, 2012).On the other hand, in case the p-value< 0.05, then it implies thatthe groups that are compared are different.
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