JobRetention of Fresh Graduates
JobRetention of Fresh Graduates
Oneof the current concerns in the job market is the flooding number ofgraduates annually from the escalating learning institutions.Notably, the numbers of job opportunities cannot be considereddirectly proportional to that of fresh graduates thus create achallenge of increased unemployment. Besides, most organizations havea challenge in retaining the fresh graduates who have been in therespective company as interns. Most countries have a high cost ofliving which when compared to the fresh graduate`s wages itrepresents some of the difficulties experienced by graduates such assustaining their life and finding a satisfactory place to reside.Most employers are characterized by uncertainty in hiring andretaining the new graduates based on reasons such as less experienceregarding the respective job. Organizations objectives are to ensureprofitability and most managers will fear that hiring and retainingthe fresh graduates will cost them both time and money. Mostresearchers have now embarked on understanding the issue of freshgraduates’ retention and what can be done to avert this challenge.It is, therefore, essential to understand the theories that arerelated to job retention and factors characterizing hiring andretaining fresh graduates such as motivation and job satisfaction.
Variousstudies have embarked on describing the relationship betweensatisfaction, motivation, involvement and retention. Major challengesthat fresh graduates face include motivation across various realms(Cosgrove, 2004). Job satisfaction and motivation have in the pastbeen used interchangeably. While motivation refers to the reasons whyan individual completes their work effectively, job satisfaction isdescribed as the comfort and happiness a job gives to an individual(Jusoh, Simun & Choy, 2011).
Varioustheories have been developed to understand the retention aspect whichincludes behavioral, need-based, job characteristics and cognitiveprocess theories. Considering the need-based theories, they arefounded on an employee desire to satisfy a specific need (Serhan etal., 2016). Essential to note is that unsatisfied needs stimulatemotivation among individuals. Under this category, other theoriespresented include hierarchy of needs and motivation-hygiene.According to Serhan et al. (2016) on the hierarchy of needs theory,the needs and motivation lie in the process of satisfying therespective requirements. There are several levels of needs whichinclude psychological, social and safety. For instance, examples ofpsychological needs include water, food and good sleep which if anindividual has inadequate supply, he or she is expected to do allthey can to achieve them. Motivation-hygiene theory is described bythe difference in factors that describe job satisfaction anddissatisfaction (Yusoff, Kian & Idris, 2013). According to thistheory, the factors that cause job satisfaction differ from thosecausing dissatisfaction. In the cognitive process theory, it is basedon the fact that studying the process of motivation is characterizedby identifying how it takes place (Serhan et al., 2016). On the otherhand, the behavioral theory considers motivation as being founded onreward and incentives while the job characteristics theory focuses onthe psychological state of the worker and job characteristics whichare described as complex, and challenging.
Relationshipbetween job satisfaction, retention, and motivation
Jobsatisfaction has in the past been used as the basis of freshgraduate’s retention. However, this aspect has been considered asconventional since the modern world focuses on other aspects. Thishas changed as a result of loyalty decrease and the inception ofother alternatives such as performance evaluation and training (Quek,2005). Pop, Swanepoel & Barkhuizen (2013) argue that retention isa process which most organizations have embarked on although themotivational factor characterizes it. Cosgrove (2004) definesemployee retention based on four main elements. These includecommitment, desire to achieve the set goals and objectives andloyalty. This implies that job retention of the successful employeesis the foundation of an organization success. A further aspect beingconsidered is the relationship between the community and retention.Essential to note is that individuals who are committed to working inthe community for a long time find it hard to leave their work asthey have been satisfied and established a strong connection with thesociety and the organization (Serhan et al., 2016). To the managersof these organizations, it becomes a challenging situation torearrange the connections thus a challenging aspect to hire newindividuals. Job satisfaction has been identified as psychological,social and environmental elements that determine the level ofsatisfaction. According to (Pitts, Marvel & Fernandez, 2011), jobsatisfaction is an internal feeling.
Factorsinfluencing fresh graduate’s retention
Whilenotwithstanding the factors above in regards to retention and jobsatisfaction, it is imperative to consider other elements that arelikely to affect fresh graduate’s retention. While job satisfactionremains the primary psychological element of effective working, otherelements that play role include personal attributes and jobcharacteristics. Serhan et al. (2016) relates these factors withthose of motivation, involvement, retention and job satisfaction. Inregards to personal characteristics, they include age, gender, levelof education and marital status. According to Shelker et al. (2013),men are more satisfied than females. Other studies have indicated nodifference in job satisfaction among male and females. The differenceif any is brought out by the different job positions and pay.Essential to note at this point is that satisfied fresh graduateswill have a high performance output increasing their chances of beingretained by the organization. Education level as a personalcharacteristic is identified as the major cause of job satisfaction.Notably, individuals with high level of education are identified asthe most likely to get unsatisfied. This is because theirexpectations are to get high salary according to their educationlevel. As a result, their output is affected which transcends to lesschances of being retained.
Jobcharacteristics also define fresh graduates and being satisfied. Thetype of job determines the psychological state of the individualwhich in turn determines the satisfaction. Examples of these elementsthat are affiliated with job characteristics include technology use,workload, and interpersonal relationships (Serhan et al., 2016).These factors determine the motivation of an individual which affectsthe performance output (Jansson & Sorensen, 2015). Based on theabove discussion which uses empirical studies on the fresh graduate’sretention, it is apparent that there is a need to identify the keyrequirements that will avert this challenge of less employment andenhance retention of the fresh graduates. This implies that furtherstudies should be aimed at improving job satisfaction and motivationwhich will increase the chances of fresh graduates being retained inthe organizations. Essential to note are the gaps in the existingliterature in regards to the strategies that can be used to avert thechallenge of job experience being the foundation of job retention aswell as acquiring the competent skills.
Currently,the world is characterized by a vast number of unemployed graduateswhich is related to the issue of increased number of students whereasthe learning institutions are limited. Securing a job positionremains a primary factor. This implies that job retention of freshgraduates remains a major topic of discussion. As indicated in theabove discussion, job satisfaction and motivation remain key elementsin determining the performance of an individual which will determinethe possibility of job retention. This is aimed at averting the mainchallenge of managers fearing employing fresh graduates while citingreasons such as less experience and the cost of training them. Thisliterature review provides insight to crucial information that can beused to understand fresh graduate’s retention. Further, the abovediscussion provides some of the important aspects to consider in thefuture studies regarding the same field.
Cosgrove,J. (2004). The impact of honors programs on undergraduate academicperformance, retention, and graduation. Journalof the National Collegiate Honors Council–Online Archive,137.
Jansson,L., & Sørensen, M. (2015). Motivation factors within non-profitprojects: How project leaders can motivate their project group.
Jehanzeb,K., & Bashir, N. A. (2013). Training and development program andits benefits to employee and organization: A conceptualstudy. EuropeanJournal of Business and Management, 5(2).
Jusoh,M., Simun, M., & Choy Chong, S. (2011). Expectation gaps, jobsatisfaction, and organizational commitment of fresh graduates: Rolesof graduates, higher learning institutions and employers. Education+Training, 53(6),515-530.
Pitts,D., Marvel, J., & Fernandez, S. (2011). So hard to say goodbye?Turnover intention among US federal employees. PublicAdministration Review, 71(5),751-760.
Pop,C., Swanepoel, S., & Barkhuizen, N. (2013). The role ofmentorship in the retention of graduate interns.
Quek,A. H. (2005). Learning for the workplace: a case study in graduateemployees` generic competencies. Journalof workplace learning, 17(4),231-242.
Serhan,C., Tsangari, H., Bengoa, D. S., & Mekdessi, S. (2016). FreshGraduates’ Retention: A Review of Literature.
Shelker,W., Herbison, P., Belton, A., & Glue, P. (2013). Factors relatedto postgraduate retention of medical graduates in New Zealand. TheNew Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 126(1371).
Yusoff,W. F. W., Kian, T. S., & Idris, M. T. M. (2013). Herzberg’s TwoFactors Theory On Work Motivation: Does Its Work For TodaysEnvironment. Globaljournal of commerce and Management, 2(5),18-22.