Definition/Explanation of Terms/Concepts
Toulmin Model – this refers to a practical approach used to analyze the logic of everyday argument. The model was developed by Stephen Toulmin.
Warrant- these refers to general statements that support the claim
Fallacy- fallacy is a deceptive and mistaken belief which is based on unsound argument.
Rebuttal- this refers to counter-statements
Genetic fallacy (Fallacy) – Genetic fallacy refers to a line of reasoning based on someone’s history rather than the current state.
The Claim- this refers to the thesis statement
Appeal to tradition (Fallacy)-this is a fallacy that occurs when one assumes that something is more superior or correct just because it is traditional.
Appeal to ignorance (Fallacy) – this is a fallacy which occurs when one argues that the conclusion is true simply because there is no evidence against it.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc (Fallacy) –this refers to a fallacy that occurs when it is concluded that an event leads to another simply because the proposed cause takes places before the effect.
Special Pleading (Fallacy) – this is a fallacy that occurs when a person applies rules and standards to others while excepting himself or herself without giving an adequate reason.
TinaFey’s article, “Confessions of a Juggler,” is about the worstand the rudest questions that one can ever ask a woman, and also herlife as a mother and what she passed through as a child. Fey quotesseveral authorities in her article, for instance, when she statesthat science indicates that fertility and movie offers reduce forwomen after the age of 40, she is quoting a competent authority inscience. She also uses appropriate statistics by pointing out thatlarge families in Manhattan is now a status symbol with most of thepeople raising four children. The writer also uses a number ofexamples to build her argument, for example, when she states that sheis not for status symbols, she gives some examples such as going to apublic school and maintaining her original teeth and face parts toprove the point which is thus satisfactory. Fey is however unfair asshe uses the means of ridicule to persuade the readers. The writer’sargument is aimed at a female audience.
Thearticle, “Cash for Grades?” written by Mary Ellen Flannery isabout paying kids for good grades in privately funded programs. Theclaim in the article is that a rising number of students are beingpaid for good cash or test scores and SAT exams. This quote is theclaim since it appears in the title and the author also supports itin the text (Szczyrbak, 71). One point of data used in the article bythe author is that in Houston, there is a three-month-old, privatelyfunded $1.5 million program to reward students. This evidence can beconsidered data since it is the factual information of an existingprogram. One warrant used in the article is that children are nowtold to go to school and get paid for good grades just like a job inthe real world. This is a warrant because it supports and convincesthe reader to accept his claim (Szczyrbak, 71). An example ofqualifier used by the author is “More than 10,000 Dallas studentshave earned up to $400,” this is a qualifier since it ascertainsthe readers of the author’s position. Lastly, the rebuttal providedby the author is that monetary rewards do not work and that anyextrinsic reward undermines motivation.
JamesE. McWilliams makes a very good argument when he argues that buyingfood from nearby farmers will not save the planet. Even though Iidentified a weak point such as Locavore argument that purchasingfood produced locally assists farmers and strengthens the community,McWilliams convinces the reader that doing so will punish farmers inother parts of the world. I can help strengthen this argument bygiving more examples on why buying food from other countries is thebest, for instance, I can state that food from another country ishealthier than the local ones.
Szczyrbak,Magdalena. The Realisation of Concession in the Discourse of Judges:A Genre
Perspective.Wydawnictwo UJ, 2013. Print