Imperialismand Shaping of the Modern World
SectionOne: Short Questions
Thisrevolution took place between 1791 and 1804.The objectives of therevolution were to replace the colonial leadership with a governmentmade up of local citizens and to end slavery in Haiti. The revolutionwas led by the self-liberated slaves, who fought for the freedom ofthe people of color. The enslaved groups started rebelling againsttheir masters under the leadership of Toussaint I’Overture(Claudia, 2016). They managed to control a third of the entire islandby the year 1792, in spite of the military reinforcement from France.It is estimated that about 24,000 whites and 100,000 people of colorwere killed during the revolution (Claudia, 2016). The success of therevolution in 1801 spurred riots in the other regions, such as SantoDomingo.
Therevolution had significant impacts on the political system as well asthe social lives of the people of Haiti. It resulted in theestablishment of an independent government. However, the newgovernment was influenced by laws and policies that had beendeveloped by the French leadership. Mulatto descendants who weremixed racial had access to better education and the opportunity tojoin the military (Claudia, 2016). They collaborated with the wealthyfreemen to form the country’s elite class that took the leadership,leaving the majority of the citizens poor. Therefore, the objectivesof the Haitian Revolution were not accomplished adequately, since itdid not benefit the poor, who were the majority.
TheSouth Africa Act 1909
Thiswas the third in the list of the most significant pieces oflegislation that were established by the British Parliament with theobjective of uniting different colonies. The act was developed andenacted in 1909 with the aim of establishing the Union of SouthAfrica. The new union would bring together different British colonies(including Natal, Cape of Good Hope, Transvaal, and Orange River)under one leadership. The legislation also created a provision thatRhodesia would join the union later, but residents opposed this movethrough a referendum that was held in 1922 (O’Malley, 2016). Theact was a product of the National Convention that was organized in1908, which resulted in a conclusion that the new union would bebased on three pillars, including legislation, economic, andgovernance.
Thegovernance structure is the most significant provision of the act.The legislation provided that the union would be headed by thegovernor general, who would carry out the executive functions withthe advice of the Executive Council. The prime minister, who wasappointed from either of the houses served as the leader of thegovernment (O’Malley, 2016). The legislative powers were given tothe House of Assembly and the Senate. The legislation provided forthe establishment of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which servedas the unifying jurisdiction system.
Thisis considered as one of the largest conferences that brought togetherthe stakeholders from about a quarter of the world’s land surface,who represented a population of the about 1.5 billion people. Theconference brought together leaders from 29 African and Asiancountries, and it was held in 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia (U.S.Department of State, 2016). The organizers of the conference includedBurma, Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Sri-Lanka. Most of theparticipating nations had just gained independence from theirrespective colonizers. The objective of this conference was topromote the cultural and economic cooperation between the Asian andAfrican nations. The participating nations also intended to cometogether and make a strong voice against neocolonialism andcolonialism by the European nations. The declarations made duringthe conference contributed towards the establishment of thenon-alignment movement.
Thediscussions held during the conference resulted in about 10declarations. The need for all countries to respect the fundamentalhuman rights and the sovereignty of individual nations were some ofthe key declarations made (U.S. Department of State, 2016). Inaddition, the participating nations held that the equality of allraces had to be observed. The concept of sovereignty was accompaniedby other declarations, including the abstinence of the powerfulnations from the internal affairs of weaker states and the right ofall countries to defend their interests collectively or singly. Thissuggests that the primary goal of the conference was to minimize theimpact of the British imperialism in the former colonies.
Section2: Question 15, Experience of the Modern Imperialism
Theexperience of the modern imperialism has shaped all aspects of humanlife, including the social, cultural, economic, and politicalsystems. The influence of the imperialism on the modern economicsystems has resulted from the tendency of the developed nations totake the natural resources of the underdeveloped countries, whichmakes them financially dependent. This has been the case with theAfrican countries that are rich in natural resources, such as oil andmetals. However, they are forced to adopt the economic systems andpolicies developed by the institutions (such as the World Bank andIMF) that advance the ideas of the western world in order to accessgrants and loans (Fletcher, 2013). The underdeveloped countries arerequired to align their institutions (including the banking systems)with those of the European countries or adopt the financialmanagement standards and procedures that are recommended by theinternational organizations with roots in America or Europe.
Politicalimperialism is associated with drastic changes in the governancesystems and public institutions. The Western countries uphold thedemocratic systems of governance, which implies that all the measurestaken by the imperial world to influence the rest of the globe aredirected towards the destruction of autocracy as well as other typesof regime. The autocratic regimes are common in Africa, Asia, and theMiddle East (Fletcher, 2013). The experience of the modernimperialism has forced many countries, especially in Africa to adoptthe concept of democracy and the government systems that are used inthe western world. These leadership systems have three arms ofgovernment, where the legislature is mandated to create laws, theexecutive is required to implement them, and the judiciary isexpected to administer justice. The emerging need to enhance theindependence of the three arms of the governance system is a clearindication of the influence of the imperial world on the rest of theworld. The imperial world believes in the empowerment of the citizensand respect for human rights, which they believe can be achieved whenthe three arms are able to make independent decisions without beinginfluenced by an autocratic executive.
Thechange in the political systems has been a major milestone and abenefit to the developing countries since democracy provides thebasis on which they can achieve growth, peace, and respect for humanrights (Fletcher, 2013). However, the supply of weapons by theimperial world to the Arab countries that do not subscribe to ademocratic system of governance has resulted in anarchy, the loss oflives, and destruction of property.
Apartfrom the change in the leadership systems and institutions ofgovernance, an experience of the modern imperialism has alternatedthe mentalities of the contemporary society. The impact of theimperialism on the mentalities begins from the education system,where people in the rest of the globe are influenced to adopt thethinking patterns that are advanced by the western world. It isthrough imperialism that the African and Asian nations have beenintroduced into the modern education (Fletcher, 2013). The moderneducation has influenced the mentality of the affected countries byaligning their thinking patterns to the rest of the world. Forexample, the underdeveloped nations have been influenced to believethat high levels of literacy, which refers to the formal educationand the modern technology, are the key pillars of development andviable solutions to the challenges affecting them. This has resultedin the increase in the significance of the scientific and educationalthinking, which are considered as the alternatives for resolvingproblems in the developing nations. Other institutions that have beensignificantly influenced by the modern imperialism includehealthcare, transportation, and agriculture. In overall, most of theimpacts of the experiences of the contemporary world with theimperialism are positive.
Claudia,S. (2016). Haiti Revolution (1791-1804). Universityof Washington.Retrieved December 22, 2016, fromhttp://www.blackpast.org/gah/haitian-revolution-1791-1804
Fletcher,K. (2013). Perceptionsof contemporary effects of colonialism among educationalprofessionals in Ghana.Amherst: University of Massachusetts.
O’Malley,P. (2016). 1909 (Union of) South Africa Act. NelsonMandela Center for Memory.Retrieved December 22, 2016, fromhttps://www.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv01538/04lv01646/05lv01735.htm
U.S.Department of State (2016). Bandung conference (Asian-Africanconference), 1955. Officeof the Historian.Retrieved December 22, 2016, fromhttps://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/bandung-conf