Howbest to reach all Learners
Howbest to reach all Learners
Everyyear, teachers are confronted with the challenge to reach allstudents. The challenge mainly arises from the fact that today’sclass is diverse and is made up of many different types of learnerswho have different levels of abilities. Owing to this, the teachersmust be very competent and be masters of differentiating thecurriculum. Different studies that have been conducted in the pasthave shown that a collection of certain specific actions must beexecuted for the students to access the curriculum. One way throughwhich teachers can understand the needs of the students is throughdiscussing the needs. The discussions allow for familiarization ofthe content, and necessary modifications can be made to ensure thatthe needs of the students are met. There are other modes throughwhich students can be reached and one of them is being consistentacross the board. By being consistent, the student’s efficacy isboosted in the class setup. Also, the other strategy is re-teachingof a lesson as it was found to be an effective strategy to reach allthe students. However, differentiation instruction need not beconsistent with a strategy rather as a mindset or a mode of thinking.
Currently,students get to classrooms with different and diverse abilities,modes of learning, and personalities. The educators at the end of theday have the mandate to ensure that all the students meet the variousstandards of the district and the state. By using the differentiatedinstruction strategies, educators can meet the needs of all thestudents (Hall, Meyer & Rose, 2012). To reach all the students,proper grouping techniques, right assessment strategies and tieredlessons need to be addressed.
Toreach all the students, there is need to group the students accordingto their level of abilities, the learning styles, and the interest.The groupings of students have changed, and long gone are the dayswhen grouping was done randomly. Traditionally, students could begrouped as bluebirds, robins, and buzzards. The needs of studentshave changed making the traditional grouping past. Using thedifferentiated instruction model as the basis, grouping has to beguided by different criteria as dictated by the needs of the studentsand the short-term goals of the teacher as a way of meeting all thestandard and desired needs of the students. In regards to groupings,students can be placed in groups according to their needs, learningstyles and interest of the groups. Interestingly, all these groupingsare heterogeneous groupings.
Toreach the students, having whole-class lessons at times is veryinappropriate. In regards to the heterogeneous grouping, individualsneed to teach on a level that meets the needs of all the learners inthe classroom with the knowledge that the requirements of thestudents will be addressed in other areas. Teaching a largeheterogeneous group is comparable with some form of diverse artwork.After completion of the work by the entire class group and studentsare assigned independent work, the teacher can commence by pullingthe smaller groups together depending on their needs or even thelearning styles. It is at this point that the teacher has to identifyspecific needs of individuals. The students with individualizededucation program require the support of certain education teacher.At this point, the formative and summative assessments are stillpreferred to find out the needs of the students.
Groupingaccording to Students’ Needs
Toreach all the students, it is at times appropriate that the educatorgroup them according to the ability. Grouping is done for instancewhen the teacher has taught the lesson, yet a small group of studentsstill require more elaboration or instruction. The teacher has a roleto pull the small group from the larger group and offer them moreinstruction. The teacher offers additional support to the studentsthrough this way. Also, this kind of group is largely determined byongoing, formative assessment. In class, there are different types oflearners. A group also exists that gets to class with prior knowledgeof what has been taught. The teacher can also consider bundling thesetypes of students together and offer them a more challenging lessonactivities. Interestingly, the groups that are based on ability aredynamic and often change every time the children are evaluated.
Groupingsbased on Learning Styles
Usually,the manner in which students learn varies according to their classpersonalities. Learning styles are different as explained bydifferent approaches such as Gardner’s multiple bits ofintelligence, Dunn and Dunn learning styles model and Myers-BriggsType Indicator (Halawa, Hamed & Shehab, 2015). The underlyingthing in all these theories is that different children learn indifferent ways. For instance, the auditory learners tend tounderstand information best through verbal instruction, so theytypically key into what the teacher is saying. On the other hand, theVisual learners are those who have difficulty picking up on auditorycues, but rather learn through visual materials including theteacher’s actions and information is written on the board. Thereare also kinesthetic learners who comprise of the students who havedo not learn till they get to do something with the lesson(Papanagnou, Serrano, Barkley, Chandra, Governatori, Piela &Shin, 2016). There are those verbal learners who have to discussissues to understand what they have been taught. It is evident thatthere are students in class who need to show others, there are thosewho have to tell what they have learnt and those who need to writedown what they have learnt from one another. Sometimes, there is aneed for one of each in a group to collaborate with the other so thatthey can learn from one another. There are times when individualsportraying similar traits need to be put together to achieve a commongoal. At times, the choice of the group can be so confusing but whenindividuals start on the standards to which individuals are taughtthen things become too obvious.
FormingGroupings based on Interests of Learners
Forthe educators to reach the learners, there is a need also to have thestudents grouped according to their interests. Usually, when teachinga unit on non-fiction reading, grouping according to the interest ofstudents in so natural. A case in point is that children at all thelevels who are interested in animals can work together and supportone another, while those who are not interested in animals are atliberty to choose a topic that interests them so much. Through this,the educator will be in a position to meet the different anddivergent needs of the students hence reaching them.
Differentiatingfor All Students by using Tiered Lessons
Oneof the ways to reach all students is by differentiating all thestudents using the tiered lessons. Through this method, theinstructor is able to differentiate for all the different learningstyles and abilities that exist in the class. Through the tieredlesson planning individuals can still pay attention to the standardsand curriculum while at the same time ensuring that there isflexibility in the content, process or even the product. Whilekeeping the desired standards and curriculum in place, the instructorcan tier in different ways. The tier can be in terms of readiness(above, at and below the grade level), or even interest or learningstyles. The instructor can also decide and tier the lesson forcontent, process or product. For instance, when reading non-fictionstories, the curriculum can be designed to focus largely on theinformation considered to be significant, that is, the main ideas ofthe text. In this case, the instructor can begin by heterogeneousmode then proceed to a whole group lesson. Upon having these inplace, the smaller groups are then created as dictated by interest.For the instructor to reach all the learners, he or she can decide totier the unit through assignments, homework, the readings, materialsor even assessments. The tier is in fact designed according to theability of the student, the style of learning or even the interest.In this case, the teachers have the mandate to try to find out thedifferent models that will meet the needs of the students.
Differentiatingthe achievements of students
Toreach all the learners, there is a need for the teacher toconcentrate on the and beyond the standards. The standard movement isknown for having several good qualities. The movement help in dosingthe achievement gap as it facilitates the understanding to theteachers of the things that they need to teach every student (Courey,Tappe, Siker, & LePage, 2013). The problem is that the teachersdo not go beyond the norm. In instances where the teachers andstudents are judged depending on the manner in which the childrenperform the standardized test, several fear that the teachers willnot progress beyond the standard. The educators need to know thestandards that are in place and comprehend the position of thestudents when they get to classrooms. Some of the students need veryclose guidance to perform while others despite the guidance cannotstill make it in life. Some of the students can by the time they getto class, they are already competent and can make it easily throughthe class materials. Therefore, there is a need for the educators touse the standards established to ensure that students are reachedequitably. The only risk with this kind of approach is that theattention is likely to shift to the standards and away from thechild. Having the tools for differentiated instruction ensures thatindividuals can focus on where they belong and guide every studentappropriately.
UniversalDesign for Learning as a Means of Reaching All Students
Currently,the universal design for learning (UDL) is increasingly gainingrecognition as a means of addressing the unique needs of children indifferent age cohorts and of different abilities in nearly allschools and preschools across the country and the globe(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2015).UDL is applied in different areas of reading and language arts withmore of its application evident in the early childhood classroom. Inmost of the classes where UDL is applied the literacy experiences areoften multi-sensory in nature and they make lots of meaning for theyoung learners hence increasing the motivation and ultimatereadability for the individuals.
Toreach all learners and meet the needs of the learners, there are fourcore principles that help in the facilitation process. The principlesinclude means of representation, the means of engagement, thedifferent ways of engaging the learners and the different modes ofassessments. All these four programs are often integrated into agiven literacy comprehension program that is tailored to help inimproving the ability of the children’s to connect the text.
UDLconsiders the reading and perception association in youngstersthrough grand discussions, proficiency circles, oral dialectencounters, the innovative shows and play in instructing and dialectexpressions. Therefore, all inclusive plan for learning is known tobe an instructing and learning approach, which guarantee that theeducating of students and their learning is multi-dimensional,multi-tangible, meets their different needs, significant andenergizing to every youngster. UDL began as a design idea thatinvolved arranging of the environment to guarantee extreme opennessand profitability. Indeed, even to date, it is as a ruleprogressively augmented and implanted in learner-focused classroomsand the procedure involves watchful arranging and uses of thereadings to educational modules, innovation and faculty. According toHall, Meyer & Rose, (2012) UDL is the plan of items andsituations to be utilized by each other individual to the best levelconceivable with no type of adjustment or even without havingparticular outline.
Throughthe principles of UDL, educators can helpfully and adequately fusethe tangible rich learning openings into the day-by-day showing thatguarantees that learners can get a handle on the substance and makestrides (Hall,Meyer & Rose, 2012).A case in point is for the literacy teachers who through the UDLensures that the learners can make appropriate text connections,eventually enhancing their vocabulary and content understanding.Understanding, which is the principle point of reading isacknowledged through applying UDL.
Cognitivelearning theory hypothesizes that implicit learning is basic in theadvancement of dialect and understanding and must be begin in theearly period of life. Implicit learning is known to involveroundabout, programmed forms that in many examples are past theordinary attention to the people who handle the data. Remarkably, thedistinctive examples that are learnt early are in a perfect world gota handle on for the whole life.
Additionally,the researchers assert that the neural productivity for someparticular all around rehearsed signs can prompt to enhancedconsideration and innovativeness in specific ranges of learning. Forthe instructors who bolster understood and programmed learningthrough the UDL give the required conditions, which take into accountsocial cooperation, coordinate physical contact with nature, and achanging arrangement of articles to encourage play and investigation.As indicated by Gargiulo & Metcalf (2015), the whole human whenconceived have distinctive levels of insights that upon advancementby schools and society can advance the accomplishment of individualendeavors. The education learning encounters that continue past thetypical class exercises, for example, composing and reading and fusethe distinctive insight zones guarantee advancement of learner`sdynamic engagement, the self-adequacy and their inspiration. Inapplying the UDL while reading, the learners clarify the message ofthe writer through making content associations in imaginative andconnecting with way that is important as it were. Likewise, thelearners through UDL can augment the message given by the writerthrough enrolling their schemata to look into the associations thatexist between the group and world occasions and the diverse readingsthat they attempt (Hall,Meyer & Rose, 2012).Through UDL, it is apparent that children can make the correctestablishments for learning and appreciation.
MultipleMeans of Representation
TheOption for Perception Approach
Whenusing the UDL, the teacher can reach all students as it provides anoption for perception, option for language and symbols, and optionsfor comprehension in their literacy learning. Through the option ofperception, the teacher can display information in different waysincluding using a word wall that has items such as parts of speechrepresented by different colors, different sizes to help in meetingthe visual needs of the students. The other option is to provideauditory information using books on tapes at different speeds orvolumes as required by the learners. To boost the learners’perception, the instructor incorporates new concepts like physicalobjects or incorporating different spatial models.
RepresentingLanguage and Symbols
Fora teacher who seeks to reach in language and symbols class, there areseveral options available in regards to UDL approach (Courey, Tappe,Siker, & LePage, 2013). The instructor can consider doingpre-teaching. The teacher can consider pre-teaching the vocabularybefore the children start to read and get to define, describe or evencomprehend some of the difficult or unknown words. During thepre-teaching process, the teacher tries to simplify most of thethings, the vocabulary as well as provide alternative words ormeanings to difficult concepts to help sort out the words consideredas more difficult. For the learners in language, one of the ways thatthe teacher can explore is the program of converting text to speech(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2015). Through this mode, the texts areprovided in both printed and spoken form in two languages (dominantand second language). In regards to the representation of languageand symbols using the UDL approach, the teachers can also opt forlinking the computer graphics and graphic organizers to help inimproving the notion of children’s development (Knight, Spooner,Browder, Smith & Wood, 2013).
Useof UDL to Boost Understanding
Toreach all learners, there is a need for them all to comprehend theteacher’s message. The teacher in a UDL classroom has the mandateto accesses the background knowledge of students and takes note ofthe critical information and big ideas takes individuals through theselection and processing of information and supports the transfer ofmemory and knowledge. The above processes ensure that there isunderstanding. To ensure that all students are learning the teachergets to know the background knowledge that students have throughK-W-L charts, through the concept maps, doing pre-teaching andconducting overall conversations that will prepare the student aswell as the teacher for the upcoming lessons (Tomlinson, 2014). Theteacher also provides several examples to assist in informationclarification and ensure that the students remained interested andmotivated throughout. Through concentration on big ideas andavoidance of extraneous materials, the learners will stay focused andeven more organized. As the teacher’s guide the selection andprocessing of information, they do so while using interactive models.The teachers also can use the presentation of information providescaffolding and different prompts as the work of students. Anothermethod of ensuring that all learners are reached is that they may optto provide peer or adult tutors to help in guiding the studentsthroughout the lesson. Additionally, memory and transfer of knowledgewill be supported using checklists, electronic reminders and linkingthe new knowledge acquired by the students to the already acquiredknowledge.
ReachingLearners through Engagement- a UDL Concept
Foran educator to achieve every one of the students there is need sometype of flexibility taught. For example, through the UDL, the teachercan select to give the students flexibility to choose theirinformation tools, think of their items to showcase the things thatthey have learnt, settle on their choice with respect to timing andsuccession of their errands (Tomlinson, 2014). The exercises shouldbe exceptionally pertinent and customized. The understudies to get ahandle on the substance so effectively, the instructor need to urgethem to self-reflect and set their distinctive learning objectives.Contingent upon the requirements and nature of the assignments,social demands are adaptable and shifted just like the utilization ofcuriosity and hazard taking in various exercises.
Theother main area of address as far as engagement is concerned issustaining effort and persistence in the process. To reach thestudents, teachers need to encourage each student to display theirgoal clearly and measure the degree of success as far as goals andobjectives are concerned. Boosting engagement can also be donethrough collaboration so that the students can work together tocomplete the available tasks.
Guidancecan also be provided through peer tutoring and classroom assistant asmeans of reaching all the learners. The teacher can also bring in theconcept of feedback on student’s work, it has to be consistent andregular, and students need to assess themselves individually with theadult or peer tutor. In the end, the results that the students willobtain will assist in determining the future goals and objectives.
Duringclass teaching, the instructor needs to introduce the aspect ofself-regulation as a means of reaching all students. To ensure thatself-regulation works, the students need to be provided with endingtimes, the checklists, the evaluation guides, and teachers to guidethem. For individual coping skills, the teacher should look forwardto addressing them through models, checklists, and feedback toprovide emotional support (Courey, Tappe, Siker, & LePage, 2013).The instructor can also consider fostering the self-regulation byhaving charts in place and checklists that will ensure that studentscan evaluate their behaviors and progress over some time span. Havingthis kind of evaluation ensures that the students are involved andparticipate in different activities hence all of them are reachedwithout being choosy.
Throughthe UDL the learners get engaged by the teachers in different formsof activities and expressions. At any point when students are engagedin physical activity, the teachers should be in a position to providethem with alternatives in regards to rate, materials and time. Thealternatives will allow the learners to complete the taskssuccessfully. Also, to reach the learners, the teachers can opt toprovide the learners with rich sensory materials that are associatedwith the materials that the students are reading or using in class.Use of assistive technology is also critical in ensuring that alllearners are reached. The assistive technologies allow the learnersto navigate easily through the reading materials in different waysespecially through voice, computer or even by paper and pencil.
Incorporationof Different of Assessments
Severaloptions incorporated by teachers and their learners are based onformats, feedback, methodological options, outcome, product, andscope. All these assist them in the development of an appropriateUDL- infused classroom (Hall, Meyer & Rose, 2012). Options thatdepend on methods include essay versus the provision of severalchoices. Formatted options for learners understanding that areinvolved are visual tests, an audio speech, written reports, aproject that has a performance or an audio taped performance reportor project. Giving an example, an exam whose body is mainly athematic unit the teacher may use this to allow room for provisionof multiple options to evaluate the students’ knowledge (Gargiulo &Metcalf, 2015). During the presentation of projects, students get thefreedom to choose the method that suits them. Some students will havethe option of taking multiple choices test while others will firstdocument their work in the form of writing then do an oralpresentation. The rest of the students make several posters tocumulate their main events and finally the last group creation isbased on the drama that is later performed. Range or scope optionsinclude giving tests that are more detailed to learners who have moreexperience and a test that is less detailed to students who havelittle understanding of selected topics. Students who are a highlyadvanced study with materials that are of the higher grade so thatthey can pursue exams that were reserved for higher levels(Tomlinson, 2014).
Equally,learners with a lower level will study from lower grade books and sitfor examinations that are intended for their lower grade. In aclassroom that embraces principles for appropriate development andUDL, a factor that is most significant for success is the teacher’sresponse. The thing that the teachers has to learn for effectivequestioning is the Socratic means of questioning. This will help theteachers in discussion leading in which all learners will contributein accordance to their level. The work of the teachers will be makingsure that all the learners monitor their personal progress in theline of their work. On the other hand, the students will have todetermine how far is their success and their reading level so thatthey can have an advanced study for higher levels.
Forthe instructors to reach the learners so easily, there is a need forthem to allow the learners to express their skills and fluency in thebest way possible (Courey, Tappe, Siker, & LePage, 2013).Normally, fluency can be achieved so easily rather than having theconventional, traditional approach of one way or methodology for all.Having the different ways of expressing skills makes sure thatstudents appreciate the class and gives the best in theirdevelopment. Some of the students can opt to read books while some ofthe students may opt to listen to the tape recordings. The instructorplays the role of guiding the students in this case and supports themto ensure independence in executing their activities (Gargiulo &Metcalf, 2015).
Everyyear, teachers are confronted with the challenge to reach allstudents. The challenge mainly arises from the fact that today’sclass is diverse and is made up of many different types of learnerswho have different levels of abilities. Owing to this, the teachersmust be very competent and be masters of differentiating thecurriculum. Different studies that have been conducted in the pasthave shown that a collection of certain specific actions must beexecuted for the students to access the curriculum. The study findsout that to reach the students, there is need to group them accordingto their level of abilities, the learning styles, and the interest.The groupings of students have changed, and long gone are the dayswhen grouping was done randomly. The groupings are based on thedifferentiated instruction model as the basis. The grouping has to beguided by different criteria as dictated by the needs of the studentsand the short-term goals of the teacher as a way of meeting all thestandard and desired needs of the students.
Thereare several challenges that exist which make reaching the students aproblem. There is a need to address the barriers and challenges toensure that students are reached. From the discussion, it emergesthat one such way of addressing the challenges is by having theuniversal design for learning (Tomlinson, 2014). This form oflearning help address the challenges by providing the required space,the needed materials, the right technology and personnel to addressthe problems. Through the UDL, the study finds out that theinstructor can explore different ways of representation, differentmeans of engagements, different ways to evaluate and assess thestudents and different ways of allowing the students to expressthemselves. Through the freedom to carry out the above fouractivities in a class setup, the teacher effectively reaches theaudience which is made up of the learners.
Courey,S. J., Tappe, P., Siker, J., & LePage, P. (2013). Improved lessonplanning with universal design for learning (UDL). TeacherEducation and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher EducationDivision of the Council for Exceptional Children, 36(1),7-27.
Gargiulo,R. M., & Metcalf, D. (2015). Teachingin today`s inclusive classrooms: A universal design for learningapproach.Nelson Education.
Halawa,M. S., Hamed, E. M. R., & Shehab, M. E. (2015, December).Personalized E-learning recommendation model based on psychologicaltype and learning style models. In 2015IEEE Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Computing andInformation Systems (ICICIS) (pp.578-584). IEEE.
Hall,T. E., Meyer, A., & Rose, D. H. (Eds.). (2012). Universaldesign for learning in the classroom: Practical applications.Guilford Press.
Knight,V. F., Spooner, F., Browder, D. M., Smith, B. R., & Wood, C. L.(2013). Using systematic instruction and graphic organizers to teachscience concepts to students with autism spectrum disorders andintellectual disability. Focuson autism and other developmental disabilities, 28(2),115-126.
Papanagnou,D., Serrano, A., Barkley, K., Chandra, S., Governatori, N., Piela,N., … & Shin, R. (2016). Does tailoring instructional style toa medical student’s self-perceived learning style improveperformance when teaching intravenous catheter placement? Arandomized controlled study. BMCMedical Education, 16(1),205.
Tomlinson,C. A. (2014). Differentiatedclassroom: Responding to the needs of all learners.Ascd.