GENDER INEQUALITY 4
Despitea century of campaigns against gender discrimination, Americanindustries still continueto exhibit persistent gender pay gap. Gender pay gap is a ratio(female to male) indicating the median earning among the full-timeemployed people. A recent study establishes that in 2015, Americanwomen earned 83 percent the amount men of the same job earnedannually (Magee, 2015). While many factors havebeen held accountable for gender pay gap, the impacts it has to thefemales cannot beunderestimated.Worse, the age of femalesin American industries seem to significantly determine the value andcompensations for their services (Magee, 2015). Governmentand organizations should implement policies and management strategiesthat target at the eliminationof gender pay gap thatact as an indicatorof physical, social, psychological, economic and political harassmentagainst women.
Thecausative factor for the existing gender pay gap inAmerican workplaceshas beenbasedon religion, cultural, and socially constructed perceptions. However,specifically in Hollywood, women actors have their age to blame forthe decline in their earnings. Numerous studies have established thatthe value of a female actor in Hollywood peaks as they approach themiddle age and then decline as they age above 40 years (De Pater,Judge, & Scott, 2014). According to Zurko (2013), the payment ofa female director is about 30 percent less than that of a maledirector. Also,females in most organizations aremisrepresented.For instance,researchby Center for Women in Television and Film found that women directorsin 250 films were only 7 percent (Zurko,2013).Such misrepresentation eliminates the power for common bargaintowards gender pay equity in Hollywood.
Anotherfactor for gender pay gap in Hollywood is pay per film terms becauseit determines the amount female actors are to receive as payments foracting roles. Given that the industry ishighly saturatedwith men, females do not find enough chances to increase their wages.Finally, the star’s appearance in a movie also determines theearnings (Zurko,2013).The popular celebrities can get higher income for appearing in aparticular film. However, the benefits females obtain for a specialappearance in a movie are short lived (Magee, 2015). The reason forthis is that they do not maintain their positions in the limelightfor long due to the aging factor.
Asresult of low salary in comparison to males, female endures extendedimpacts such as economic instabilities and sexual harassment. According to De Pater, Judge, and Scott (2014), a significant numberof female actors have filed cases in American courts due to sexualharassment by their fellow actors of those in the management levels.Also,Zurko (2013) reveals that 28.2 percent of women actors wear sexuallyrevealing clothes when playing roles in movies. Moreover,the teenage female actors depicted with nudity in major films hasincreased with about 32.5 percent for the period between 2007 and2012 (Zurko 2013). The possible reason for this is that female try toprolong their earning by appearing early in the industry.
Inconclusion, gender pay gap continues to persist in Americanindustries despite national and international policies in implementedin the past years. Asa result,females in society face many challenges including economic andpsychological that undermine their well-beingin society. Therefore,a need arises for the governmentto focus on the developmentof new policies to address the issue of gender pay gap. Also,the women should be empowered through education to equip them withthe skills that can enable themtogain core skills necessary for well-paying roles such as filmdirecting.
DePater, I. E., Judge, T. A., & Scott, B. A. (2014). Age, Gender,and Compensation: A Study of Hollywood Movie Stars. JournalOf Management Inquiry,23(4), 407-420.doi:10.1177/1056492613519861
Magee,W. (2015). Effectsof Gender and Age on Pride in Work, and Job Satisfaction.Journal of Happiness Studies,16(5), 1091-1115. Doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9548-x
Zurko,N. (2013). GenderInequality in Film.NewYork Film Academy.Retrieved 19 December 2016, fromhttps://www.nyfa.edu/film-school-blog/gender-inequality-in-film/