EssayQuestions: Same Sex and Abortion
Essay1: Same Sex Marriage and Custody of Children
Thepopulation of homosexual couples has been increasing with timefollowing the legalization of the same sex marriages. However, manypeople have questioned the ability of individuals of this type ofsexual orientation to assume the parenting roles. This debate isbased on the capacity of the same sex parents to provide anenvironment as well as care that can facility effective developmentof their kids (Marks, 2012). This paper will support an argument thatsexual orientation should not influence the decision on the custodyof children.
Mostof the studies that focus on the impact of homosexual parents on thepsychosocial development of children indicate that there is nostatistically significant difference between them and heterosexualcouples. A review of the literature conducted by Marks (2012) showedthat families of the same sex individuals have an equal capacity toestablish an environment that facilitates a proper psychological aswell as social development of children. The lack of differencesbetween the two types of families leads to an argument that theorientation of the couples is an irrelevant factor when making adecision regarding the custody of children.
Familyfunctioning is another factor that needs to be considered whendeciding on the custody of children. The existing empirical findingssupport the notion that the households established by the same sexcouples function either equally or better than those of theheterosexual parents. According to Baiocco, Santamaria, Loverno,Fontanesi, Baumgartner, Laghi & Lingiardi (2015) these couplesare able to demonstrate the same level of quality of parenting,childcare, and shared housework as the conventional households.However, the same study reported that they have a high probability ofestablishing stronger parent-child relationship and help their kidsovercome the traditional concept of gender role than the couples ofthe opposite sex.
Mostof the stakeholders (including the members of the public andreligious groups) who are opposed to same sex marriages argue thatthese families cannot facilitate a healthy behavioral and cognitivegrowth of children. However, this notion has been countered byempirical studies showing that homosexual couples have the samescores as their heterosexual counterparts in most of the measures ofchild development. For example, the findings reported by Minning,Fettro & Lamidi (2014) indicated that children who are brought upby same-sex parents have the equal levels of cognitive growth andacademic performance as those who come from the households of theopposite sex individuals. The same study showed that there is nosignificant difference between the kids from the two settings interms of the risk of early sexual activity and substance abuse.
Inconclusion, there is sufficient empirical data supporting the notionthat both the heterosexual and homosexual parents are equally able totake care of children. Kids who are brought in either of the twotypes of households achieve the same level of growth in all measures,including cognitive, social, and psychological development. To thisend, the sexual orientation of individuals should not influence thedecision regarding the custody of children.
Baiocco,R., Santamaria, F., Loverno, S., Fontanesi, L., Baumgartner, E.,Laghi, F., & Lingiardi, V. (2015). Lesbian mother families andgay father families in Italy: Family functioning, dyadicsatisfaction, and child well-being. SexualityResearch and Social Policy,12 (1), 1-13.
Marks,L. (2012). Same-sex parenting and children’s outcomes: A closerexamination of the American psychological association’s brief onlesbian and gay parenting. SocialScience Research,41, 735-751.
Minning,D., Fettro, M. & Lamidi, E. (2014). Child well-being in same-sexparent families: Review of research preparedness for Americansociological association amicus brief. PopulationResearch and Policy,33 (4), 485-502.
Essay2: Right to Abortion
Theright of the expectant women to perform an abortion has been debatedfor many years, but there is agreement as to whether the terminationof pregnancy should be restricted or not. The idea is furthercomplicated by the large number of stakeholders who hold differentpositions (Condic, 2014). This paper will discuss various argumentsmade by the key participants in the debate on abortion.
Thedebate on the right of women to abort is based on various positionsthat are taken by different stakeholders, but three of them are moresignificant than others. First, the discussion is based on theconcept of beginning of life. The opponents of abortion argue that itstarts at conception, which implies that the termination of pregnancyshould be classified as murder (Condic, 2014). The proponents ofabortion hold that infants have no moral capacity as well as theability to reason, which means that they are not human beings.Consequently, abortion is not equal to murder.
Secondly,the debate is based on the right of expectant women to determine whathappens in their bodies. This idea is based on the concept ofautonomy, which holds that autonomous ladies should have the power tomake choices without being restricted in any way (Puppinck, 2015).However, the opponents of the idea of abortion argue that the freedomto make decisions should be exercised to an extent that it does notharm others. Therefore, the termination of abortion leads to murderof unborn children, which makes it an immoral action.
Thethird position is based on the health as well as the overallwellbeing of women. The stakeholders who support this idea argue thatabortion is performed for different reasons, including the risk ofmothers’ death and financial constraints (Puppinck, 2015).Therefore, denying women the right to terminate the pregnancy whenthey feel that they are not ready to keep it to term could affecttheir wellbeing in a negative way.
Mostof the religious groups oppose the idea of the unlimited right toabortion by stating that life should be given the dignity that itdeserves. They also hold that it is only God who should be allowed toterminate it. Some churches (such as catholic) argue that abortionshould not be performed under any condition since life begins atconception (Jones & Cox, 2015). This conviction has a directimpact on the attitudes of the members of the religiousorganizations.
Althoughall participants in the debate on abortion make valid arguments, somecompromises can be reached in some circumstances. For example, noneof the stakeholders is opposed to the idea that life needs to beprotected. Therefore, a compromise can be reached in order to supportabortion, as long as it is performed when the life of the mother isin danger (Jones & Cox, 2015).
Inconclusion, the debate on the right of women to terminate pregnancywithout being restricted by the law is quite controversial. Allparticipants in the discussion have genuine reasons to support theirpositions. Although it is difficult to arrive at some commonconclusions, consensus can be reached in order to allow abortion whenthe lives of the expectant women are at risk.
Condic,M. (2014). Ascientific view of when life begins.Washington, DC: Charlotte Lozier Institute.
Jones,P. & Cox, D. (2015). TheFrancis effect? U.S. Catholic attitude on Pope Francis, the CatholicChurch, and American politics.Washington, DC: Public Religion Research Institute.
Puppinck,G. (2015). Abortion in European law: Human rights, social rights, andthe new cultural trend. AveMaria International Law Journal,1, 30-43.