Educationand Crime: The Study of Formal Education as Deterrence
Mostpeople tend to believe that learning in primarily elementaryeducation imparts a civic outwardly. Learners acquire knowledge aboutproductivity and also other values like honesty, abiding by the law,and loyalty to the state. The process of education is beneficial tothe entire community other than equipping the students with skills. Practically, all the work about the benefits of education is directedtowards comparing the expenses of learning and the impact ofschooling in supplementing the future income of the learner assumingenculturation totally like being a good citizen is not of anyimportance and there could be ignorance in the external conduct. Indemonstrating learning as a deterrent to education, the principal aimof this research is to point out features that illustrate the way inwhich teaching and crime inter-relate and how they cause and affecteach other. In my opinion, education could be deterrent to crime ornot, and some determinants lead to the positivity or negativity ofthis fact such as the conditions under which there is the provisionof education and the settings in which education results to be adeterrent to crime. The purposes of researching on this matter are tomake a distinction between good and poor performance and to link thelow performance with the negative character of the student.
Educationas a deterrence is a phrase used to mean that knowledge helps inpreventing or rather minimizing crimes. Education is an essential tovarious issues in the society. When people learn, they gain knowledgewhich helps them in realizing the worth of being part of a givencountry thus it stimulates good citizenship. People do not just takerules governing a country for granted but they understand theirimportance and are aware of the negative implications that could comeup if they do not exist. There is more to education than justacquisition of skills that enhance one’s opportunity in jobspecialization and employment. Learning perpetuates the moral valuesof a given community, ensures the continuity of culture and supportssome virtues like sincerity and hard work (Machin, Olivier, &Vujic, 2010). ). If this is the case, we can refer to education asthe purveyor of an enormous civic externally and a social advantagewhose reflection is not evident on the private returns to theimmediate beneficiary. Practically, all the work about the benefitsof education is directed towards comparing the expenses of learningand the impact of schooling in supplementing the future income of thelearner assuming enculturation totally like being a good citizen isnot of any importance and there could be ignorance in the externalconduct. We may tend to wonder if crime can be minimized byimproving the quality of education. Yes, quality education can reducecriminal acts to a large extent. However, being a criminal does notbegin in school, it has its roots in the streets when the learnersare commencing their adolescence stage.
Iintend to carry my research to prisoners and federal prisons innational wide. There is so much evidence that can emanate fromprisoners and education. That is, do prisoners have the drive foreducation? What percentage completes education when they start andwhat impact do education have to them? Do their morals transform ongetting educated? What percentage of convicts goes to jail when theyare educated and the factors that lead them to commit the crimes? Theabove are questions that I will be addressing in my research tosupport my hypothesis. The stratified method of sampling is what Iwill use to select my samples where prisoners with similarcharacteristics are grouped together, and then random sampling isused to choose around 200 poisoners.
Thetechnique I adopt in this situation is the comparison of extremes. Iintend to use my research on juvenile kids. The dependent variable inmy analysis is the level of education while the independent variableis the criminal activity of the convict. The higher the level offormal learning that a person is exposed to, the lower theprobability of the individual involvement in criminal acts. I willconstruct the questions based the history of education of thesamples, the present i.e. where they are educationally and the futurethat is what they intend to make use of the education. Questionnairesregarding simple, one answer question like yes or no and also essayquestions. Also, the samples will be an interview and the informationrecorded. I will check the bias by ensuring there is conformity ofthe questions to all genders and race and there will be nodiscrimination of whatever kind.
Myintervention is the survey of incarcerated and paroled criminals ontheir age, ethnicity, level of education and crime committed. Thefactor that comes naturally in the event of analyzing this statementis the creation of a model where people make decisions to behavebadly. It is important that one clarifies the sense of decadentbehavior before he outlines the implications of education for thatbehavior. I hypothesize a community in which the convicts may makechoices before they commit crimes, I use farming to represents goodconduct and banditry to represent criminal activities. Thesecriminals may choose either one of them, to be farmers or to bebandits. The advantage of this experiment is that the price ofbanditry and the externality in cases where learning decreases theoccurrence of banditry becomes instantly evident so that the profitsof being educated in skill and honesty promotion and may have acomparison in a mutual scale.
Thisprocess happens in stages. To begin with, there is an examination ofBanditry’s social cost by an uncomplicated general equilibriummodel of profession selection between banditry and farming. Then weintroduce learning but limit it to expanding the marginal cost ofemployment like the assumptions are usually made in the estimation ofeducational returns. After this there is an intermediate step ofinvestigating education as a deterrent, there is an expansion of themodel so to give an allowance for banditry’s deterrence by penalty. After the analysis is done, there is an expansion of the model oncemore to endow instruction with a two-fold outcome in the economy.
Educationhas an influence on labor output in farming and also affects thecomparative attraction of the bandit’s life in comparison to thefarmer’s life where the latter represents the effects ofinstruction on being a good citizen and having good behavior. Theother findings in my experiments included the results of the researchcarried out in a report in 1997, 41% and 31% representing prisonersin the United States, central prisons, local jails, and probationersrespectively had not finished the high school education (Harlow,2003). We can compare this to 18%of the overall population who are 18years or older who had not completed the 12th grade. 68% of thefederal prisons convicts did not pursue high school diploma. In 1991,57% of inmates were seen to continue taking courses in educationwhile they were still in jail and the statistic dropped to 52% in theyear 1997(Harlow,2003).It is deducted that correctional populationhas a difference in attaining education from people who are 18 andabove in the universal non-institutional residence. They have lowachievement education than those in general population (Harlow,2003)
Theshortcoming of this model is that it assumes convicts to be similarin their tastes and abilities and education should be universal. Theadvantage is in the feature found in this model is even though theimpact education in skill acquiring is similar irrespective of who orthe size of education, the influence of education as a deterrentdepends on the identity and number of the beneficiaries.
Overthe last two decades, evaluating the variation in the educationalperformance amongst marginal learners mostly the students stuckbetween new immigrant and those who are born in America has evolvedto a prominent issue of concern in urban education. The purposes ofresearching on this matter are to make a distinction between good andpoor performance and to link the low performance with the negativecharacter of the student. In accordance to the observational and theinterviews carried out, it is evident that the social identity of thestudent competes with the character of the street some. Policies thatsupport the increased education play a significant role in minimizingcriminal activities (Meghir, Palme, Mortem & Schnabel, 2012).)
Schoolsmay be specifically an advantageous setting at the beginning ofcriminal behavior. Urban schools which are located in environmentscharacterized by poverty have increased levels of violence, dropoutsof the students and they barely sustain good teachers (Murnane2008).Of the total inmates in U.S, only a percentage of 35 comparedto the total population pursue a high school diploma (Harlow 2003).(Lochner and Moretti, 2004) Have the best prevailing practical proofof the connection between education and crime. These scholars applymodifications in compulsory schooling and the rules of child labor togive an estimation of how adding more years to criminals would affectthe activity. In human capital structure, youth who are lowly trainedwill indulge in illegal activities in early stages of life becausethey do not have hopes of any returns to schooling (Loncher 2004). Ifthere is a high quality of education, the period the students stay inschool is extended. Thus they will earn more income, and the crimeswill be minimized. Still, there exists minimal confirmation of howthe quality of the school is affected by crime. Parental education isalso crucial in crime eradication. Hjalmarsson and Lindquist say thatthere exist a strong correlation a dad’s offense committed by thefathers and kids who belong to similar gender.
Inconclusion, I will summarize some reasons that cause increased levelsof crimes. Education leads to a high pay. Thus there are minimalchances of being involved in criminal activities. It’s impossiblefor people to participate in certain labor markets during the timeset aside for crime execution. The individuals learned the virtue ofpatience by going to school. They tend to focus on the salary theywill earn in the future, and for this purpose, they do not want torisk the involvement in any criminal record. Lastly, being in schoolincreases the chance of associating with the legal community, andthis reduces the probability of being connecting with criminals. Ifone is educated, most of his peers are usually of the same level withhim thus they focus on the same things (Hjalmarsson, Lochner, 2012 )
Harlow,C. W. (2003). Education and Correctional Populations. Bureauof Justice Statistics Special Report.
Hjalmarsson,R., & Lochner, L. (2012). The impact of education on crime:international evidence. DiceReport,10, 49-55.
Lochner,L., & Moretti, E. (2004). The Effect of Education on Crime:Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports. TheAmerican Economic Review,94, 155-189.
Machin,S., Olivier, M., & Vujic, S. (2010). The crime reducing effectof education.St. Louis:FederalReserve Bank of St Louis,21, 6-9
Meghir,C., Palme, M., Marten, & Schnabel, M. (2012). The effect of education policy on crime:an intergenerational perspective (No. w18145). NationalBureau of Economic Research.