Contributionsof Casey to Break of Soviet Union
Contributionsof Casey to Break of Soviet Union
In the year1981, the month of February, CIA appointed a new director by the nameWilliam Casey who was focused on two primary initiatives. The firstwas the development of a new estimate of the intelligence that was toenable the United States to understand the weaknesses and strengthsof its adversaries clearly. The second initiative was to pay closeattention to global threats including terrorism and subversion.William Casey joined the agency with the aim of improving the CIA’saccess to President Reagan to strengthen their workforce towardstheir goal of defeating the efforts of the Soviet Union to expand.When Casey was appointed as the Director of Central Intelligence, hefaced opposition and controversy, but he was still dedicated toconfronting and conquer the challenges that were associated with hisleadership. William Casey was appointed by President Reagan who wasbelieved to be his close friend as he had served as Reagan’scampaign manager and withstanding all the campaign challenges throughto President Reagan’s victorious win. Casey wanted to takeadvantage of the intimate relationship between him and the presidentto collaborate with the agency in the efforts to bring the SovietUnion down.
Under theleadership of Casey, CIA became influential because the servingpresident clearly understood the agency and knew its significance.Reagan was aware of how the organization was critical in his policydecisions and appreciated the inputs of the intelligence members. Themotivating factor behind Reagan appointing Casey was to reward himfor his great support and the significant role he played in thecampaign. Another reason was that of his conservative views regardingthe foreign policy that Reagan had utilized and shared with thepublic. It is easy to speculate that maybe without Casey in theagency, CIA could have advanced if only it had a different Director.
It is evidentthat Reagan and William Casey played a significant role in the fallof the Soviet Union since they were the primary decision makers. Thispaper will explore the contributions of William Casey as the Directorof Central Intelligence (DCI) and how he led the agency towardsbreaking the Soviet Union.
During theleadership of William Casey, CIA analysts were against the roughactivities of the Soviet Union. In March 1981, the state secretaryasked for a report regarding the role that USSR played in supportingterrorism. The first report that the manager received was the publicquotes that had been made by the leaders of the Soviet Unioncondemning and accusing the different terrorist groups. Casey wanteda new analysis to be conducted by the CIA and DIA’s historicalrecords that the previous analysis lacked.
A joint reportthat resulted from the study stated that the Soviet Union played agreat role in Revolutionary violence, which was viewed as a globaleffort. Following the Warsaw Pact collapsed, the agency realized thateven the second analysis understated the significant role that theSoviet Union played in supporting the terrorists. Some of the recordsretrieved, for instance, Politburo document revealed how Brezhnevfunded the peace movements secretly.
Similarly,President Reagan and Casey collaboratively campaigned for the fall ofSoviet Union using GDP estimates. They believed that the estimatesprovided by CIA and other analysts had overstated the GDP of Soviet.The agency had estimated the average USSR GDP by 1980 wasapproximately 46% of the United States (Hoffman, 2004). The CIA usedthe available Soviet estimates and statistics that had been publishedto support their argument. Instead of Casey and Reagan arguing fromthe available statistics as well as documents by qualified economistswho based their data with from economy’s efficiency, Casey andReagan wanted to estimate the GDP level of USSR blindly. According tothem, GDP level was supposed to be consistent with the appearance ofUSSR.
Besides arguingon the little USSR GDP, Casey, and the president gave various reasonsfor their argument. The first evidence was that by 1980, the majorityof the Soviets had inadequate housing, tiny apartments with only 2/3accessing running water and only 1/3 having hot water. Further in1000 households, only 18 owned cars. Other reasons included Sovietslacked an established market economy they used three times moreenergy units as compared to West Germany and France, and theirgovernment subsidized prices of food to avoid civil unrest amongstothers.
After analysisof all the above information, Casey and Reagan concluded that theeconomy of Soviet was roughly 1/6 of the United States economy. Thismeant that the data collected by the previous analysis was muchhigher than the real GDP level.
Anothertechnique that Casey used to break down the Soviet Union during hisleadership was by getting freedom for Poland. Reagan and Casey feltthat Poland was an excellent loophole to disrupt the Soviet Union onthe Eastern part of Europe. The Soviets had a firm believe thatothers were likely to follow after the breaking away of Poland. Thelabor union (Solidarity), which was led by Lech Walesa, had startedposing a big threat to the state. In the year 1981, the U.S strictlywarned the Soviet government not to take any legal action against thelabor union. Unfortunately, the commander of Warsal Pact forcespushed Solidarity underground which made Reagan feel like punishingMoscow. The Western European leaders overreacted to the situationwhen Roger Robinson, former Chase Manhattan VP decided to penalizeMoscow by delaying pipeline’s first strand, halting the secondstrand and stopping technology transfers. Casey and Reagan supportedthis view and adopted it.
As the DIA,William Casey collaborated with President Reagan to break the SovietUnion by spoiling their oil plans. After the institutionalization ofthe martial law in Poland, Reagan on 29th December 1981 commanded allU.S companies to break every contract that they had made, which wereassociated with the Siberian dual pipeline. He further ordered thefirms not to enter into any new contracts. This command resulted to astop in Japanese-Soviet oil and gas discovery. The estimated loss forthe Soviets was 46 billion dollars that they had anticipated to startflowing from the year 1986 onward. As if it was not enough, PresidentReagan extended the order to include European companies or firms,which were operating using American licenses.
Reaganemphasized on order by arguing that no firm that was using U.Slicensed technology would be denied the state markets. By the year1982, there were no any new contracts for the Soviets, and the U.Shad started monitoring their financial relations with Soviet and comeup with a way to harmonize their export credit policies. (Russell,2004)
The SiberianPipeline reduced to only a single pipe it also suffered delays fromfires and turbine breakdowns for two years. The two-year delayresulted in a great loss to the Soviets which were projected at $15billion per year in 1990 and a cost of more than $15 billion in hardcurrency. The Siberian Pipeline reduction and delay marked theturning point in the cold war since it resulted in a decline of thecurrency that was urgently needed to borrow and buy from the West.
The introductionabove has outlined various ways through which William Casey used tobring down the economy of the Soviet Union, but the most significantone is the building of the Siberia pipeline. However, there were afew setbacks that acted as a hindrance to the success of thispipeline and one of them was that the Soviet Union lacked the basicmaterials and technology that was crucial to this exercise. Theylacked the natural gas that would be used in the pipeline and yetother countries such France and America had the gas and thetechnology that lacked in the Soviet Union. (Hoffman, 2004)
The technologythat these people desperately needed was to be responsible for makingthe pumps work so that there would be enough pressure to pump the oilthrough the pipeline. It was also to ensure that both the valves andthe turbines were in a good position to avoid any mistakes happeningduring the transportation of oil through the pipeline. Since theylacked this, they had to look for a way to get all the requirements.As we saw earlier, both the United States and France were inpossession of the technology. Therefore, the Soviet Union had hopesthat their project will be completed.
Unfortunately,United States were not willing to give the technology to the SovietUnion. Therefore, they decided to turn to France for help. Thisprocess of importation of the natural gas and the technology wasdisrupted by the United States as they tried to block thetransaction. The Soviet Union was only left with one choice to getthe software they badly needed, and that was through illegal means.However, they were unlucky in their deals because the CIA got to knowtheir plans before they could implement them as they were carryingout their intelligence operations. The CIA, therefore, plotted tosabotage the Soviet Union before they could accomplish the plan tosteal the technology. (Safire, 2004)
The CIAfollowing an order from Reagan decided to dupe the Unions bypretending that they were going to give them the technologywillingly. They went ahead and ordered the manufacture of a fakesoftware and sent it to Russia so as to use it in their pipes andturbines. The Russians gladly took the software as they thought theirproblem had finally been solved and the pipeline will be completed assoon as possible. Little did they know that the technology was a fakeone. The software was to help in exerting pressure in the machines soas to make the pumping of the oil possible. The CIA had thereforedesigned one that was to exert a lot of pressure than the normalpressure required for the pumping of the oil.
The softwareused exerted pressure on the pumps and turbines leading to anenormous explosion from the pipeline. By doing this, the CIA knewthat the economy of the Soviet Union would crumble down because theUnion had invested a lot of capital in the Siberia pipeline. From thereports in various articles, there was no indication of whether therewere people injured in that explosion but for sure it caused enormousdamage to the pipeline. (Gibney, 2014)
As we all knowwhen such a disaster happens in a country or state, it’s bound tocause a lot of negative impacts on the economy, and that’s exactlywhat happened to the Soviet Union. Within no time, an operation wascarried out to find out what had gone wrong in the systems managingthe pipeline and therefore every system had to be checked to seewhich was in good condition and which one was not. Through this, theSoviet Union discovered that they had stolen a flawed software whichwas the main cause of the explosion. (Hoffman, Reagan gave the greenlight to Sabotage of Soviet Oil Pipeline, 2004)
The operationpaved the way for the discovery of more illegal processes that hadbeen conducted by the Soviet Union, and it was evident that they hadstolen programs and several important data from different sectors andindustries. There are many reasons that we can conclude that led tothe fall of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Siberia pipeline isone of them. The main aim of the project was to get control over theEuropean energy supplies, and they had also anticipated an incomerevenue of about eight billion dollars.
The projectdidn’t go as planned and therefore the Russians lost a lot of moneyas they had also invested a lot in the project. They also lost thehuge amount of revenue that they had planned on getting and thereforethis affected the economy largely. When there is no enough revenue inthe economy, the welfare of the country as a whole goes down reducingits productivity and competitiveness in the world markets andeconomies. The Soviet Union suffered this crisis as a result of thefailure of the Siberia pipeline.
Another resultthat came due to this explosion and operations carried out by the CIAwas that a Soviet Union spy name as Dieter Gerhardt was arrested. Hewas the one giving information to them about different programs anddata from other countries making it possible for the Soviets to findit easier to carry out their illegal processes. This was another hugescandal because the Soviets could no longer access some of theimportant information from some of the countries they had beenstealing from. As a result, they lacked some valuable software’sthat they could use in their industries meaning that they didn’thave enough materials and resources to run their economy. Theindustries went down failing the economy as a whole.
Anotheroperation was launched in the United States and other overseacountries to deport the Soviet agents back to their countries. Thismeant that most of the European countries had lost trust in theSoviet Union and therefore it was difficult for them to continuekeeping close ties. There was a great loss on the side of the SovietUnion because by other countries cutting ties with them meant that itwould have an enormous impact on their economy. This operationaffected their relationship with other states, affected their tradingactivities and this, as a result, slowed down the economy.
Due to manycases about the Soviet Union stealing programs and software, otherstates developed ways of making sure they had their programsprotected to avoid illegal access to them. The Union lacked the mostimportant computer knowledge and programs they needed to make theirsoft wares. The destruction of the links they had used to steal fromother sources led to the collapse of their economy as the linkscollapsed when they needed them the most. Most of the Russianscientist could not carry out their tasks for some time due tounavailability of the required resources. In addition to that, mostof the technicians had to close their work. Thus was a huge blow tothe economy as most industries are usually the greatest contributorsto the success of the economy.
From the abovediscussion, we can clearly conclude that there were different factorsthat led to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but we can say that thefailure to complete the Siberia pipeline was a huge blow to theeconomy. The explosion dragged the country behind economically, andthis resulted in more opportunistic factors that caused the countryto crumble more economically. The pipeline could have brought a hugeimpact to the Soviet Union, but it’s unfortunate that it had to bethe one to bring out many of the illegal processes that were beingcarried out in the industries and the government.
Gibney, J. (2014, March 17). Sanction Russia? Reagan Tried It With No Luck. Bloomberg.
Hoffman, D. (2004, February 27). Reagan Approved Plan to Sabotage Soviets. The Washngton Post.
Hoffman, D. (2004, February 27). Reagan Gave Green Light To Sabotage Of Soviet Oil Pipeline. The Washngton Post.
Russell, A. (2004, February 28). CIA plot led to huge blast in Siberian gas pipeline. The Telegraph.
Safire, W. (2004, February 2). The Farewell Dossier. The New York Times.