Connectionbetween U.S and the Emergence of ISIL
Connectionbetween U.S and the Emergence of ISIL
Terroristgroups like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) have beendominating the headlines in recent years all over the globe. Theassociation has been criticized broadly by the United Nations andother governments. Mainstream Muslim federations have also rejectedthe statehood of the rebellious group that mainly operates at theheart of Middle East in states like Syria and Iraq. It follows thefundamentalist doctrines of Sunni Islam (Saouli,2015).By March 2015 they had taken over territories that harbored more thanten million people. Its logistical and command structure is alsosomething to be acknowledged. It is important to study ISIL in anattempt to identify its source. Also, check whether the United Statesand Britain played a role in is emergence and eruption of conflictsin Iraq. Though the two nations succeeded in eliminating SaddamHussein from the helm they failed to finalize the structure of thenew government as they intended to bring a new political andsocio-economic order in Iraq.The failure of the United Sates and other western allies todemocratize Iraq, bring socio-political order and selective politicalactions influenced by the local people led to the emergence of ISIL.
Sakai,in his article, ISISand Sectarianism as a Result of a Meltdown of the regional Orders inthe Middle East,discusses the main factors that led to the rise of the Islamic Statefrom the aspect of international associations. He considers it tohave been brought by the mistakes and the failures caused by thestates that invaded Iraq specifically the United Kingdom and theUnited States (Sakai,2015). The author concludes that the militia group emerged as aresult of the wars in Syria and Iraq which the two states triggeredin an attempt to get rid of Saddam Hussein. Hence the article isuseful in this research.
Inhis article, Therise of Islamic State: ISIS and the new Sunni revolution, Saouli(2015) claims that the US-led invasion initiated the Sunni dissentwithin the country of Iraq which also coincided with the collapse ofthe Hussein regime in 2003. He states that the Sunni opposed theShi’a and repelled the U.S occupation. He adds that the UnitedStates disintegration of the army in the region weakened it. It alsorendered many officers jobless most of whom later joined therebellious groups (Saouli,2015). The article is also significant in the research since itreveals the emergence of the insurgent group.
McQuagge(2015), in the article, TheGenesis of ISIS: Special Warfaregives a chronological manner in which ISIS came to existence and howit gained power as the United States neutralized the government ofIraq. The author also describes how the insurgent group opposed theoccupying military personnel in the region and managed to acquiresome weapons from the American soldiers which they used to loot someof the Syrian banks to gain access to finances which supported theiroperations (McQuagge,2015). The sequential description of how the rebellious group came toexist renders the article useful in this research.
Tombul(2015) in his work, Theemergence of ISIS in Iraq: An economic approach to the “RootCauses” of Terrorismattempts to identify the cause of the emergence of the ISIS throughan economic view. After issuing some comprehensive analysis of theterrorism literature, the author designed a case study examination ofthe amount of terrorist activities conducted by the militia grouppre-war and after the US-led Iraq war. He does so to generate a clearimage of the complex phenomenon of the immorality with respect topolitical transformation and economic deprivation(Tombul,2015). The article is useful since the author states a causalrelationship between the acts of the rebellious group and thepolitical instability in the country since 2003 when U.S attackedIraq. Thus, arguing that the invader contributed to the currentsituation in the area.
White(2016) suggests that there is a strong link between the United Statesinvading Iraq and the emergence of the insurgent group. He alsoindicates that it is a 40-year-old product of the U.S foreignpolicies in Iraq. White (2016) that the nation believed that invadingthe territory would end terrorism little was it known that was theintroduction of fresh complications in the area (White,2016). The article is useful in this research since it describes thepolicies that the United States introduced that led to the emergenceof the rebellious group and its increased insurgency.
Reportsfrom Amnesty International cite the emergence of the militia group inIraq may be traced back in 2003 when Iraqi leadership was toppled(White,2016). The unintended consequences of the invasion of the UnitedStates and Britain in the region led to its rise. Had the U.SCongress denied the then President George W. Bush the opportunity toattack a state that was far away from the United States and which didnot pose any threat to America, there would have no terrorism inSinai, Beirut and most recent in Paris. The then Illinois SenatorBarrack Obama had warned that the attacks would only fan the flamesof the region.
Whenthe World Trade Center was bombed in September 2001, George Bushblamed Al-Qaeda which was a militia group in Iraq. The United Stateslinked the country with the terrorist group. Iraq was blamed fortraining members of the group on how to make biological weapons(White,2016). The country was also believed to be harboring weapons of massdestructions and posed a great danger to the world at large due tothe chemical weapons and atom bombs. U.S also claimed that the Iraqpresident Saddam Hussein protected and aided the terrorists despitethe accused suppressing the organization in his country. Bin Laden,the Al-Qaeda leader, on the other hand, had accused Hussein of beingan apostate from the Islam adding that socialists are infidels.
Despitethe absence of proofs supporting such claims, Tony Blair, the thenBritish Prime Minister, and George Bush went on with their invasionof Iraq (Sakai,2015).Though they were successful they led to the emergence of other forcesthat caused an eruption of conflict in the state. As Hussein wasremoved from power, several insurgency groups took advantage of theweakened government and military forces. They also opposed theoccupying forces and powerful men in the region largely constitutedof the Shi’a. Other organizations that emerged were the Al-Tawhidwa al-Jihad foundation. It became a strong force in the insurgencyupon declaring its commitment to the already established Al-Qaeda.
UnitedStated supported the Sunni al-Sahwa Council which was a moderateforce and progressively lessened the influence of the Al-Qaeda inIraq most notably when its forces killed their leader Mussabal-Zarqawi via an airstrike in 2006 (Saouli,2015).It prompted the leaders of the rebellious group in Iraq to rename itto Islamic State in Iraq (ISI). The ensuing years were less appealingfor ISI. The American military undertook major operations against themilitants of the group. They reduced their capabilities ofrecapturing the region which also coincided with the willingness ofthe Sunni tribal leaders to eliminate them and opt for their formerleader. ISI had brought a civilian life against many members of Sunniin addition to introducing brutal tactics. The group needed a leaderfor it to survive and they appointed Abu Omar al-Baghdadi who waskilled in 2010 in a U.S air strike. They struggled to survive due tolack of ideology and manpower.
Whenthe United States left the country in December 2011, al-Qaeda wasleft intact though depleted in Iraq. Ethnic differences between theShi’a and Sunni were still bubbling. Similar to the post-SovietAfghanistan, United States left Al-Qaeda without a Jihad to pursue(White,2016).In 2012, ISI transformed into the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria(ISIS).
Theresurgence was much catalyzed by the conflict in Syria. There waslooting of the Syrian banks by members of the group where theycollected almost half a billion dollars in cash to finance itsoperations (Tombul,2015).The militia also gained more grounds as most of the members who werecaptured were able to escape from captivity. They also managed to runaway with several weapons belonging to the United States. In additionto their improved manpower due to the release of the prisoners, theirlogistics, technology and financial capabilities were up to standardscapable of challenging any army on the planet. They used force toinduce support from the Arabs though of late United States havecontinued their support of fighting the insurgency by hunting downits members and withholding some of their finances.
Althoughal-Qaeda occupies large territories in Syria, there are more thanfifty other militia gatherings that have unique interests in the sameregion (McQuagge, 2015). In July 2014, the group initiated alarge-scale attack on the Iraqi security personnel and occupied thenorth part known as Mosul when the security guards fled due topressures from the members of the ISIS. They seized the opportunityand expanded their influence southwards where they also becamesuccessful. They later seized some of the oil producing areas likethe Baiji where they have been generating much income to financetheir activities.
Conclusively,it is clear that the United States led to the emergence of the ISISmilitia group. Had America distanced itself from the issues in Iraqand avoided invading the region then the current government wouldhave identified the manner in which to neutralize the effects of therebellious groups. The fact that the U.S government toppled SaddamHussein from the helm and weakened his state officials withoutreestablishing a strong government led to improved ability of themilitia groups to exercise their warfare. In years to come if ISIScontinues to expand, it will establish political controls in a majorarea not only in Iraq but all over the world. The recent Parisattacks were just an idea how strong the group is currently. It mightreestablish economies in major regions of the world, indispensableservices and commodities like electricity and water to continue itsoperations effectively.
McQuagge,E. (2015). The genesis of ISIS: Special warfare, 28(1).RetrievedNovember 15, 2016,fromhttp://www.soc.mil/SWCS/SWmag/archive/SW2801/28-1_JAN_MAR_2015_vWeb.pdf
Sakai,K. (2015). ISIS and sectarianism as a result of a meltdown of theregional orders in the Middle East. InternationalRelations and Diplomacy,3(4),265-278.
Saouli,A. (2015). The rise of Islamic State: ISIS and the new Sunnirevolution: Book reviews. CambridgeReview of International Affairs,28(3),498-500.
Tombul,O. (2015). Theemergence of ISIS in Iraq: An economic approach to the “RootCauses” of Terrorism.
White,C. (2016). ISIS:A Product of the United States` quest for the neoconservativeidentity.