Comparethe health care systems of U.S. and Great Britain
TheUnited States and the Great Britain health care systems both haveworld class health outcomes. However, the U.S healthcare system isunique compared with other advances of industrialized nations. Forinstance, it does not have universal care coverage and also lacks auniform health system like other countries. The healthcare systems inthe U.S are funded privately by households and private businesses.The health care system in Great Britain is devolved among the fournations including Wales, England, Scotland and the Northern Ireland.Their healthcare system is publicly funded by a voluntary provision,smaller private sectors, and separates parliaments and governments(Gulliford& Morgan, 2013).
Thispaper seeks to compare the United States healthcare system and theGreat Britain’s healthcare system.
Comparisonof the Type of Health Insurance Used in the U.S and the Great Britain
Healthinsurance in the U.S is referred to as any program that assists inpaying for medical bills and services in order to offer financialprotection to the citizens and enhance access to healthcare. The typeof health insurance used in the U.S includes the social insuranceprograms such as Medicare, the private insurance and the socialwelfare programs such as the State Children’s health InsuranceProgram and Medicaid. Therefore, the U.S health care system isdescribed as a hybrid system. Both Medicaid and Medicare offerhealth-related services as well as medical services to a particulargroup of people in the U.S. Medicare health insurance program thatpays for medical and health services to a specific group of people(family or individuals) with few resources and low income. Medicareis used to pay for medical and health care for specific groups ofdisabled people as well as the elderly in the U.S (Shi& Singh, 2014).
Onthe other hand, the type of health insurance also known as theprivate medical insurance is used in Great Britain that pays forprivate health care services. The private medical insurance coversabout 10% of the Britain’s population that provides patients withaccess to quality care. Also, it has contributed towards thereduction of waiting times. Statistics indicate that an approximateof 5.1 million citizens in the country have health insurance. The twotypes of the private medical insurance in the UK include moratoriumand the fully underwritten insurance. The fully underwritten policyprovides a wider coverage of medical expenses thus expensive. Themoratorium policy covers less medical services thus cheaper comparedto the fully underwritten policy (Schoen,Osborn, Squires & Doty, 2013).
Comparisonand Contrast of Children, Unemployed and Retired populations
Children,unemployed and retired populations are referred to as the vulnerablepopulations. The vulnerability of these populations is facilitated byfactors such as lack of insurance coverage, lack of the normal sourceof care and income among others. These factors expose thesepopulations to increased risks of mortality, morbidity, and access tohealthcare (Schoen,Osborn, Squires & Doty, 2013).
Thecoverage for medications is a supplement for health benefits both inthe U.S and the Great Britain, which is available to every individualcovered by the health insurance including children, unemployed andthe retired. The health insurance programs in both countries help inpaying for the prescriptions of drugs. The aim of prescriptioncoverage is to offer protection against paying high drug costs orhave prescription drug bills that are not expected. Thus it ensuresappropriate access to drugs in order to accomplish long-termstability. However, the medications coverage both in the U.S andGreat Britain does not place any limitation on the quantities ofdrugs to be prescribed among these populations rather it isdetermined by the prescribers (Schoen,Osborn, Squires & Doty, 2013).
Referralsrefer to the link between specialty care and primary care. Both theU.S and the Great Britain healthcare systems have similar referralsprocess to specialty among children, unemployed and the retiredpopulations. These processes include referral decision making thatmust be appropriate and identify the right specialty to handle thecondition of the patient. After initiating the referral, the referralis tracked to coordinate healthcare for the patient and allow thepatient to make an appointment with the specialist as well. Relevantinformation is then transferred to the specialist for evaluation.After evaluation, the specialist provides diagnostic and therapeuticinterventions to the patient as well as follow-up recommendations(Schoen,Osborn, Squires & Doty, 2013).
Apre-existing condition refers to a medical condition that occurredbefore the health insurance of an individual was put into effect. Thepre-existing conditions were and are still a major hindrance to thecoverage of some medical expenses by insurance policies both in theU.S and Great Britain’s healthcare system. The pre-existingconditions occurred mainly among children, unemployed and the retiredwho were not covered by the insurance. The health insurance policiesin the U.S have improved the health insurance by including thecoverage of these populations through the Affordable Healthcare Act.On the other hand, the UK healthcare policies cover most of thepre-existing medical conditions for free among children, unemployedand the retired people. Examples of pre-existing conditions coveredunder the health insurance in the UK among these populations includerespiratory conditions, stroke, cancer, epilepsy, heart conditionsand the medical conditions that involve surgery among other (Schoen,Osborn, Squires & Doty, 2013).
FinancialImplications to Patients in Terms of Costs and FinancialResponsibilities
Thecosts of health care system both in the U.S and the U.K have reducedsignificantly through the effect of the healthcare insurance. Thereduction of costs has facilitated easy access to health careservices among populations in these countries especially amongchildren, the unemployed and the retired populations (Squires,2012).
Thefinancial responsibilities in the UK healthcare system are moreaccountable compared to the healthcare system in the U.S. Forinstance, in the UK, the government is responsible for the healthcare costs, which is managed through a single-payer system. Since itis the only organization dealing with health care finances, itensures medical costs are managed effectively and maintained atreasonable costs thus there are minimal cases of medical bankruptcy.The U.S healthcare system is experiencing high cases of medicalbankruptcy. The high healthcare costs in the US health care systemshave put families in bad financial situations that have resulted inbankruptcy (Squires,2012).
Thehealthcare system in the U.S and the U.K compare in major ways. Theyboth have health insurances that offer financial protection to thecitizens and enhance access to healthcare. The U.S and the U.Khealthcare system as well differ in significant ways. For instance,the UK healthcare system has a uniform health care system as comparedto the U.S that has a hybrid healthcare system.
Gulliford,M., & Morgan, M. (Eds.). (2013). Accessto health care.Routledge.
Schoen,C., Osborn, R., Squires, D., & Doty, M. M. (2013). Access,affordability, and insurance complexity are often worse in the UnitedStates compared to ten other countries. HealthAffairs,32(12),2205-2215.
Shi,L., & Singh, D. A. (2014). Deliveringhealth care in America.Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Squires,D. A. (2012). Explaining high health care spending in the UnitedStates: an international comparison of supply, utilization, prices,and quality. Issuebrief (Commonwealth Fund),10,1-14.