Research carried outby Ainsworth & Bell, (1970) indicates that there existattachments between infants and their caregivers, which happen longbefore the children are aware. Shaffer and Emerson initiallydiscovered infant attachment to their caregivers in the year 1964.Later, Ainsworth and Bell advanced it in 1970 using a technique knownas Strange Situation Classification. Key areas of discussion in thepaper include a summary of Ainsworth work, which included researchquestions, hypothesis, and research design utilized. I have providedmy opinion and two intervention measures that can foster healthyattachments at a tender age. This review paper provides a detailedsummary of various types of infants’ attachment and their influenceon children’s future development.
I agree withAinsworth & Bell research on infants. The research consisted ofinfants whose age fell between 12-18 months old (Ainsworth,M.S., & Bell, 1970). The research utilizednaturalistic observation design. The experiment was conducted in onesmall room that was fitted with one glass. The researchers had twokey hypotheses there exist various styles of attachment betweenchildren and their guardians, and infants behave differently in thepresence of people they know and strangers. Ainsworth & Belldeveloped eight research questions that facilitated a comprehensiveresearch. The research question include, how is an infant likely tobehavior when the mother is around? Is a child`s behavior likely tochange in the presence of her/his mother and a stranger? How does achild react when left with a stranger? What is the mood of a childwhen the stranger leaves and the mother returns? What is the behaviorof child when left without the mother? Ainsworth & Bell were keento observe infants’ exploratory behaviors such looking around theroom and playing with toys (Ainsworth& Bell, 1970). Emotional behaviors such as smilingwhen left with strangers or crying were recorded. After theexperiment, Ainsworth & Bell documented three key attachmentstyles, which comprise secure, insecure resistance and insecureavoidant. The attachment styles were attributed to the interactionthe existed between a mother and an infant. Children classified tohave secure attachment displayed a strong bond with their guardians.They were very distressed when deserted by their mothers and wereuncomfortable in the presence of strangers. In addition, childrenperceived to have secure attachment were extremely excited uponreturn of their mothers. Children under insecure attachment areintensely distressed when left their mothers who cry and pushstrangers (Ainsworth& Bell, 1970). When their mother came back,children under insecure attachment category would cease from crying.Avoidant infants were comfortable in the present of their mother orstrangers.
Supportfor My Agreement
I agree with theresearch of Ainsworth & Bell due to its credibility. The researchwas conducted on 100 families, which eliminated bias. A large numberof infants observed reduced chances of errors providing a reliableresearch. Furthermore, a sample of 100 was manageable and made iteasy to analyze the results. Large samples required enormous time toconduct and are costly to analyze. The research setting facilitatedaccuracy of the results obtained. By selecting a small room, theresearchers were able to are to monitor all the behaviors of theinfants. The choice of a glass enabled the researchers to viewinfants from afar, without interfering with their actions. As aresult, the experiment setting contributed greatly to the desiredresults. The researchers observed the infants behavior for aninterval of 15 seconds. Research indicates that concentration changesrapidly. Thus, by setting 15 seconds as an interval, the researcherswere able to record many observations as possible, which made thedata collected valid. The intensity score was also recorded on ascale that ranged from 1-7. As a result, the researchers were able toaccount ever for the small changes in children’s behavior. Also,the number of questions developed were comprehensive and related tothe topic of research. The researcher questions were effective inmonitoring the behavior of a child while alone, in the presence ofhis/her guardian and a stranger. The questions were written in shortsentences, making them easy to follow by the families involved. Inaddition, they made the exercise exciting and engaging to theparticipants. Participants in many types of research are able tocooperate actively if the questions or experiments appear lessdetailed. Additionally, the research questions were written in asimple language. As a result, the family members involved in theexperiment could read the questions once, and retain much of theinformation. Moreover, the researchers listed the number of secureattachment to be 70% compared to avoidance attachment and insecureattachment both with scored 15% (Ainsworth& Bell, 1970).
The scores werecredible as the majority of children at a tender age stay in enclosedenvironments, where they are able to interact with their mothersmostly. Consequently, there are high chances the children will beunease in the presence of strangers. Most young childrenunconsciously trust their family members and have a fear of theoutsiders. Only one limitation exists in the Ainsworth & Bellresearch. The research utilized tables and percentages to display theresults. The research did not include a graph, which is important todisplay a mental picture of the findings. Nevertheless, the researchwas detailed and could be applied by parents to develop a strongattachment with their children. In the current worlds, the workplacesare becoming complicated, and mothers have to live their childrenunder the care of different people within a year. As a result, theresearch is helpful to parents whose infants fall in the group ofinsecure attachment and secure attachment, as both dislike thepresence of strangers. Ainsworth & Bell research enables one topredict the behavior of children in future. Infants under avoidantattachment are likely to form friends outside the family with easeand become less frequent at home compared to secure attachments whoare likely to establish a strong bond with the family members.
Interventionsfor Developing Health Attachments
Parent-childattachment intervention- in the initial years of development,children learn through observation. Parents should avoid discouragingchildren in their plays or behaviors. Infants are able to noticeindividuals who are unfriendly and develop a negative attitude. It isimportant for the parents to motivate their children to play and toengage them in plays. Parents should allow their children to movearound the houses, scribble in books, scrub on the floor with objectsamong other activities (Benoit& Zeanah, 2013). By frequently exciting thechildren, they develop a strong bond with their parents, which lasteven in the future. In addition, the parents should be present toregulate their children’s mood. If an infant is hurt, the mothershould give adequate consolation to enrich the relationship bond.
NurturingEnvironment- The environment of growth is key to the wholeness of achild. Since infancy, it is important for the guardians to exposetheir children to play with others. When infants play together, theyreduce fear related to meeting new individuals in life. The parentsshould be near to encourage their infants to continue to play withdifferent kids. Extended secure attachment leads to children havingdifficulties later in life when introduced to the school. Their mindsshift to their beloved parents, reducing their level ofconcentration. In addition, most infants who have not interacted withothers during the initials years, do not score as expected in thefirst years of schooling (Benoit& Zeanah, 2013). Consequently, parents should allowtheir children to interact with others for future benefits.
Ainsworth,M.S., & Bell, S.M. (1970). Attachment, exploration, andseparation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strangesituation. Child Development, 41(1), 49-67.
Benoit, D.,Parker, K. C., & Zeanah, C. H. (2013). Mothers` attachment oftheir infants assessed: Stability and association with infants`attachment classifications. Journalof Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(3),307-313.