CharismaticLeadership Affects Intrinsic Motivation to Increase Job Performance
CharismaticLeadership Affects Intrinsic Motivation to Increase Job Performance
Employeesare leading determinants of institutional performance through theirwork outputs, and they must be kept satisfied to deliver. Leadershipplays a significant role in employee motivation and enhancement ofjob performance in every organization. In particular, charismaticleadership is essential in the transformational process of aninstitution, with every charismatic leader known to generate greatsymbolic power. Arguably, charismatic leadership style helps toenhance motivation and increases job performance by empowering thefollowers, which is made possible through the exceptional skills andtalents of the charismatic leader. In essence, there is a profoundrelationship that exists between the charismatic leadership andfollowers’ commitment, efforts, and trust that helps to increasejob performance. There are various ways by which charismaticleadership contributes to the motivation of staff and improvement ofjob performance. These include the promotion of intrinsic valence ofeffort, enhancing effort-accomplishment expectation, promotinginternal urge of goal achievement, bettering the future by instillingfaith, and developing individual commitment among others. Therefore,the primary purpose of the research paper is to evaluate howcharismatic leadership affects intrinsic motivation to increase jobperformance within an organization.
PromotingIntrinsic Valence of Effort
Charismaticleadership has an effect on motivating workers and increasing jobperformance by supporting intrinsic valence of effort. To realizethat, charismatic leaders ensure that there is a symbolic andexpressive aspect of the effort (Blom& Alvesson, 2015, p. 488). Ideally, the effort represents a substantial value within anorganization, and is often used to promote better job performancegiven that it acts as a primary motivational factor. As the leadersstrive to make an effort, there is a possibility of making a moralstatement. In tandem with that, charismatic leaders act (or show moreefforts in the organization) to strengthen the positive perceptionsthat the followers direct towards them, which in turn encourages theemployees to emulate their leader and put more effort on jobcompletion (Asrar-ul-Haq& Kuchinke, 2016, p. 60).Consequently, there is increased work performance, which would resultin high productivity of the organization.
Furthermore,charismatic leadership ensures that intrinsic valence of the effortis embedded in the participation that makes it a representation of acollective identity. Charismatic leaders’ quality ofself-monitoring ensures that they portray positive self-image to thefollowers through their actions, and that make an effort moremeaningful to the people they lead. That enhances the self-concept ofthe followers, increasing their efforts and behaviors that representthe identity (Gözükara& Şimşek, 2015, p. 970).Charismatic leadership focuses on these existing identities, puttingmore emphasis on either of their superiority or uniqueness. Forinstance, the leaders can formulate a certain brand that isinclusive, and one which when implemented in the long run, willensure that self-concept of the followers is clearly engaged suchthat they can perform in the absence of the leader. When charismaticleaders utilize their skills and knowledge effectively, the salienceof shared identity is likely to enhance the heroic motive(Haselberger,2016, p. 16).In the process, the idea of self-interest will be depressed among thefollowers, and they will start to engage in altruistic orcollectivistic endeavors.
Numerousbenefits can be realized when charismatic leadership is applied,especially those values that increase the salience of collectiveidentities among the follower`s self-concept. First, the actions of acharismatic leader will trigger self-sacrificial as they motivate thefollowers, and that will lead to increased job performance. Secondly,the actions will sustain teamwork or what is commonly known as thecollectively oriented behavior among the followers, and that has apositive influence on job performance(Barrick et al., 2015, p. 115).In simple terms, the actions of a charismatic leader motivate thefollowers to increase their work rate at individual and group levels,thereby amounting to higher job performance. Earnestly,charismaticleaders have a significant influence on their followers through theiractions, which determine the level of motivation and job performance.The followers can only choose to make efforts once the leaders haveinfluenced them. Through such efforts, the institution can identifythe followers with certain values that can enhance productivity(Haselberger,2016, p. 15).Not only do the followers become identified with the values but theyare also able to recognize certain leaders who inspire them invarious areas of work (Li etal.,2015, p. 1148). With the values in place and the followers emulatingthe actions of the charismatic leaders who inspire them, the resultis commitment, which in turn terminates in increased job performancethrough the application of more effort by the employees.
Thesignificance of charismatic leadership in enhancingeffort-accomplishment expectation of the followers in anyorganization cannot be overemphasized. Through charismaticleadership, the human resources under the authority are able todisplay more efforts in duty execution (Gözükara& Şimşek, 2015, p. 966). The followers showcase increased self-worth and self-esteem thatonly amount to higher job performance. By expressing high expectationand confidence, charismatic leaders can improve on the self-esteem ofthe followers(Chen, Zhu & Zhou,2015, p. 511). The leaders’ interpersonal skills and knowledge are decisive inmeeting the required expectation among the followers, and has beenthe basis upon which those under the leadership improve on their jobperformances. Besides, through charismatic leadership, self-efficacyof the followers is enhanced, which culminates in the completion oftasks by the staff without supervision. In any case, self-efficacy isa strong source of motivation its role in improving job performancecannot be overwritten.
Motivationof the followers in itself is a very significant element within anorganization that every leader should emphasize to increase workperformance of the human resources. For instance, charismatic leadersshould work hard to ensure that the self-worth of the followers isimproved, which can be achieved through emphasizing on the connectionbetween important values and efforts (Blom& Alvesson, 2015, p. 492). When the followers experience a general sense of self-worth fromtheir leaders, it may aid in the generation of a positive impact onthe self-efficacy. Moreover, the followers will be contented, whichin turn will trigger a sense of moral correctness. In tandem withthat, the staff will acquire the desired strength and confidencerequired to perform (Uusi-Kakkurietal.,2016, p. 552).Specifically, the virtues of being confident andcontented are being instilled by the behaviors and efforts investedby the charismatic leader. As a result, the followers gain completefaith in the moral correctness of one’s conviction, and that islikely to stimulate personal strength and confidence to actaccordingly (Haselberger,2016, p. 17).Such kind of behaviors, when practiced within an organization, canenhance job performance since they act as motivational factors.
Charismaticleaders have a wide array of qualities that contribute to theintrinsic motivation of the followers and consequently amount tobetter job performance. For instance, such leaders are full ofhumility in which they consider the values of the followers andlisten to their respective concerns. Hence, effort-accomplishment bythe employees is enhanced as they acquire a feeling of self-belongingthat in turn facilitates duty completion with little supervision(Gözükara& Şimşek, 2015, p. 963).Furthermore, to realize effort-accomplishment among the followers,the leaders put more emphasis on collective efficacy. Essentially,when the people being led have a perceived collective efficacy, thedecisions they make on what to do as a team remain positive and infavor of organizational growth (Santos& Taijeron, 2015, p. 227).Therefore, the primary aim of the charismatic leaders is to ensurethat they instill collective efficacy among their followers througheffective motivation. Additionally, the perceived collective efficacywill determine the amount of effort that the members are likely toput during team work. When job performance is to be increased in anorganization, the amount of effort that the team has must bemonitored, and that should be the driving motive for the charismaticleaders. Apart from that, charismatic leaders always ensure thatthey empower their followers with what is known as the staying power(Santos& Taijeron, 2015, p. 227).Staying power is an essential element among the followers since itensures that the team continues to put more effort on their work evenif the initial effort failed to produce a result. Simply put,therefore, a charismatic leader motivates the followers to continuebeing part of the efficacious collective group, which in turnenhances an individual’s self-efficacy,thereby culminating in increased work output.
PromotingIntrinsic Urge of Goal Accomplishment
Althoughseveral motivational strategies can be utilized to influence thefollowers, promoting intrinsic urge of goal accomplishment stands outas one of the most significant approaches to motivation exploited bycharismatic leaders. Such leaders ensure that job performance isenhanced through the articulation of the mission and vision (Odoardiet al., 2015, p. 558). Vision refers to where an organization wantsto be within a stipulated time frame it must be clearly stated tothe followers. On the other hand, mission refers to the mechanismsimplemented by the organization to realize the goals within aspecified period. The effective communication of vision and missionof an organization is very effective in enhancing job performance inan institution(Haselberger, 2016, p. 10).Charismatic leaders capitalize on their exceptional communicationskills to ensure that every staff member under their leadership iswell acquainted with the institutional vision and mission, and thatkeeps the employees focused on the attainment of the goals of theorganization. Regardless, institutional vision and mission statementspresent the objectives that are to be achieved by the followersthrough teamwork (Chenet al.,2015, p. 510).Therefore, by efficiently clarifying the vision and mission of theorganization, charismatic leaders ensure that work is aligned towardsthe accomplishment of the defined objectives.
Besides,the openness displayed by charismatic leaders to the followers oftencreates a setting where each worker is contacted one-on-one withinthe group regarding organizational short and long-term goals.Consequently, the objective or goals have a clear meaning, and theyhave a connection with both the past and future events of theorganization (Uusi-Kakkurietal.,2016, p. 556). Thus, the followers can identify consistency ofvarious events that are taking place in the institution. That canalso trigger personal insights and encourage the employees to learnabout the trend of how the organization is being managed (Odoardiet al., 2015, p. 560). As the interest to learn more about themanagement mounts, the urge to work more and accomplish the projectedgoals also grows, translating into increased job performance. On thatregard, the followers gain self-consistency and a sense ofmeaningfulness that benefits the organization in terms of increasedproductivity they are aware of the vision and mission of theinstitution and endeavor to fulfill the requirements.
Notably,charismatic leadership put more emphasis on the objectives of theorganizations, and that aspect is used for differentiation of variousgroups or teams. In cases where there is group identification withrespect to the goals that are to be realized in an organization, theindividual group members will certainly put more effort in theirwork, and the outcome would be improved job performance (Chenet al.,2015, p. 512).Moreover, the followers can be associated with large entities withinthe organization, and the tendency to exercise their full potentialswill be supported. Similarly, the various leadership actions togetherwith certain entities are evoked and as a result, they are made moresalient, and there is a possibility of being implicated in action(Blom & Alvesson, 2015, p. 490).Nonetheless, charismatic leadership, because of its ability toidentify teams through specific objectives to be accomplished, isvital in ensuring that the staffs commit to achieving the specifiedgoals, with the outcome of such dedications being higherorganizational productivity.
Betteringthe Future by Instilling Faith
Charismaticleadership makes the future of organizations bright since theapproach employs motivation techniques that help to build the faithof the followers. Various mechanisms can be utilized to reward thestaffs, which sometimes take the form of a process. The primaryattributes of a charismatic leader that enhance the faith of thefollowers include self-consistency, self-worth, self-efficacy, andself-expression. These attributes emerge from the process, and it isnot possible to exchange them at any cost(De Treville & Antonakis, 2016, p. 120).In so doing, the followers are motivated from inside, and then theyexpress the inward effort through increased job performance.Precisely, charismatic leaders play down the extrinsic rewards andthe associated anticipations so as to stress on the intrinsic rewardsof the effort. By not offering practical extrinsic reason for theneeded behavior, there is increased possibility that the followerswill ascribe their actions to internal self-regulated causes, whichin turn compounds the commitment of the followers to work moretowards achieving the organization goals as outlined by their leader(Yang,2014, p. 1267). That approach is very effective in an organization aiming to realizeits objective within a particular period. Evidently, charismaticleaders have the skills and knowledge to ensure that followers aremotivated and their effort to perform comes from inside.
Ideally,charismatic leadership’s efforts are directed towards minimizingextrinsic rewards and any other related expectation. That is becauseextrinsic motivation cannot be sustained for a long period, and thatcan result in poor job performance. Therefore, most charismaticleaders encourage intrinsic aspect of motivation since it is apersonal decision, and it can be sustained for a longer duration(Odoardiet al., 2015, p. 553). As a result, when the leaders refrain frompragmatic extrinsic justification for the required action, they areenhancing job performance in the organization. Job performanceincreases because the followers can identify themselves with successsince the behavior that is generated can be associated with internalself-effort. Once the internal motive has been triggered, thefollowers’ loyalty advances when performing any duty, with theirproductivity efforts noted to grow over time(Chen et al.,2015, p. 513).Simply put, charismatic leadership endeavors to motivate employeesintrinsically so thateveryworker can acquire self-regulated decisions to perform better at theworkplace.
Inmost situations, charismatic leaders do not encourage an approachthat emphasizes on specific goals alongside proximal and subjectiveactions. That is because it is not realistic that goal attainmentwould result in distinct outcomes. Instead, charismatic leaders whowant to attain successful results in their organizations acknowledgethe use of utopian, distal goals, and vague outcomes (DeCremer & Van Knippenberg, 2012, p. 858).In practical, it is evident that most charismatic leaders utilize theimaging, symbolism, fantasy, and mysticism. Those approaches haveresulted in better job performance in many organizations as theymotivate staff to work towards a common idea. However, it ischallenging to comprehend how the concept works, since it tends tocontradict the conventional motivational models (Sarroset al., 2012, p. 288).These standard motivational models focus on goal specificity andproximity. Conversely, under charismatic leadership, it is positedthat if the leaders and followers have faith about the future, thatin itself seems more satisfying compared to conventional motivationalmodels (DeCremer & Van Knippenberg, 2012, p. 857).In any case, most individuals tend to work together with peoplehaving some sense of hope or vision, and charismatic leaders qualifyas the vision-oriented group. Nevertheless, the followers stick closeto such leaders since they anticipate for something better in thefuture. Such commitment, when practiced in the organization, canresult in better job performance. The devotion of the followers togive their best with respect to work performance can continue for anextended period, even if that faith that has been instilled in themcannot be translated into any definite proximal goals whoserealization is vastly probable (Odoardiet al., 2015, p. 549). Therefore, charismatic leaders empower theirfollowers by instilling faith in them, and that can lead to betterjob performance in an organization.
DevelopingIndividual Commitment in an Organization
Commitmentcan be used as a key indicator to establish whether an institutionwill perform in the future or otherwise. It is an element that mustbe shown by the leaders, after which the followers can emulate whatthey see and act accordingly. In the end, everyone (the leaders andthe followers alike) will be involved in active participation, andthat improves job performance (Li etal.,2015, p. 1149). Nonetheless, commitment is considered as a vitalelement of charismatic motivational influence within an institution.Where high level of commitment is a characteristic of an institution,leaders and followers are expected to concentrate on a particularmission, vision, and transcendent goal. Along with that, charismaticleaders act as a processing factory to their followers in which theyproduce ethics, generate life through commitment, thereby enhancingthe spirit of the organization once more again (DeCremer & Van Knippenberg, 2012, p. 857).Consequently, there is increased work output by the followers whoexpress more dedication to complete duties as required.
Particularly,there are different types of commitment that can be manifested in anorganization. First, there is what is known as induced commitment,which does not improve job performance(De Treville & Antonakis, 2016, p. 114).Under induced commitment, the followers are forced to perform dutiessince certain factors are compelling them to do so. The impact isthat when such factors are not present, they will not be able toaccomplish the tasks as assigned. On that regard, charismatic leadersencourage that commitments must be generated, and it must come intoplay voluntarily. As a result, within the institution, charismaticleaders tend to avoid induced commitment since its sustainability islimited (Yang,2014, p. 1268).Within the framework of charismatic leadership, commitment isportrayed as personal and unconditional, which gives rise to a secondtype known as unconditional commitment. Mainly, unconditionalcommitment is regarded as a moral or personal involvement in aninstitutional duty. It is a kind of self-generated commitment thatcontributes much in an organization, and it can be sustained ascompared to induced commitment (DeCremer & Van Knippenberg, 2012, p. 859).Certainly, such motivational disposition plays a significant role inan organization since it ensures that there is a continuation ofrelationship as well as the course of action. Besides, the efforts offollowers are rejuvenated, and they do not consider other benefits orexternal cost that can emerge during the action (Li etal.,2015, p. 1147). Thus, every follower obliges to perform better underthe influence of unconditional commitment put forth by the attributesof charismatic leaders.
Earnestly,charismaticleadership acknowledges that unconditional commitment can only berealized when the relationship or role that is assigned to thefollowers becomes an integrated component of personal self-concept.Additionally, there is a certain level of consistency that must beachieved during such course of action. For instance, the role must beconsistency with the expression of the individual’s self-concept(DeTreville & Antonakis, 2016, p. 112).Consequentially, action must be regarded as a simple means of doingas well as a way of being. Therefore, it falls within thejurisdiction of the charismatic leaders to ensure that they maketheir followers committed without being forced, that is, everycommitment or dedication by an employee must be voluntaryif an organization is to achieve considerable growth milestones.It is noteworthy that a charismatic leader has the capacity toinfluence people and establish their followers to identify with theirvalues and beliefs. They always undertake such process throughmotivation that lead to creation of inbuilt commitments (Koene,Vogelaar, & Soeters, 2012, p. 211).In other words, the leaders only focus on providing an incentivenecessary for job performance, and that in turn would make the staffto follow the directives and values in line with the charismaticofficers. The reason is that the process of motivation is vital inensuring a self-reinforced commitment as such behavior manifestationsare always binding in nature (Li etal.,2015, p. 1150). The followers will, therefore, have natural quest toincrease their job performance with an aim accomplishing a missionirrespective of the absence of the charismatic leader.
Notably,individuals will find themselves voluntarily taking part in dutycompletion as required by their leaders without supervision thanks tothe motivating attributes that come with charismatic authority. Thetendency to work independently instills considerable confidence onthe followers, which culminates in increased job performance (Sarroset al., 2012, p. 290).Furthermore, the self-regulated actions by the followers may attracta collective indulgence and commitment to tackle a specified job. Thecollective action brings about combined efforts and sharing of skillsand experiences to perform a specified job, and that supportshigher-level performance that favors organizational expansion (Koeneet al., 2012, p. 211). In other instances, charismatic leaders can make their followers tointegrate relationship among themselves when it comes to performing aparticular task. Such inbuilt trusts among the staff lead tocommitment at the work place that is significant in enhancing jobperformance for the benefit of the charismatic leader (Sarrosetal.,2012, p. 300). The workforce will also indulge in self-justification which leads toavoidance of cognitive dissonance, thus performing tasks in a waytypical of limited problems because the employees are all inclined tosatisfying the charismatic leader (Shea& Howell, 2015, p. 376). Precisely, the shared collective urge to fulfill the needs ofspecified persons leads to reduced conflict of interest and createsroom for high job performance. It is, therefore, evident thatmotivation of the workers to perform a particular duty may lookintrinsic for the outsiders, but such aspect is extrinsic because itis solely initiated by the charismatic leader (Uusi-Kakkurietal.,2016, p. 548). The actions of the followers may, in such case, beindependent of the presence of the leader but the notable fact isthat the leaders themselves build the prevailing ideology and passionof action. Hence, charismatic leadership is in the constantstabilization of the workers’ commitment through intrinsicmotivation, as it is through it that the followers can develop aninward effort to perform, which they consequently express throughaction.
TheUse of Modesty to Entice Job Performance
Modestyis a vital principle relevant in the performance of workers it isutilized by charismatic leaders to lure other individuals inidentifying with their beliefs and values. It is worth mentioningthat leaders who are keen on grabbing the limelight and taking upcredit for specified success in a given organization enjoy loyaltyand respect(Shea & Howell, 2015, p. 377).Charismatic leaders are always keen on creating respect and loyaltyamong the colleagues, which is fundamental in boosting their jobperformance. Realistically, staffs that are loyal to a particularleader may find it easy to implement the values and ideas of suchperson without any question. Furthermore, charismatic leaders engagein self-fulfilling prophesies, and that make their followers viewthem as competent and confident individuals. Such strategy involvesdeveloping a conducive condition that is significant in nurturingsuccess which includes job performance (Yang,2014, p. 1269).Moreover, the leaders express themselves as bold in theirdecision-making processes while also excellent in selling ideas. Thecharacteristics, therefore, play a critical role in attractingindividuals from the outside arena or staffs to undertaking theirjobs without intrinsically making sound decisions.
Evidently,charismatic leaders mostly avoid personality tests because theydislike formal methods of determining modesty, and that force them touse other strategies such as inducements to make the followersperform a specified task (Shea& Howell, 2015, p. 388).The lack of personality test is, thus, a clear indication that thepeople involved in the job performance do it without engaging inintrinsic decisions. The reason is that such process of selection canonly operate on individuals who can be easily be influenced to takeactions and decisions which favor particular leader (Sarrosetal.,2012, p. 299).All in all, the aim of a charismatic leader is to ensure that thefollowers perform best with little supervision, and they attain thatby creating respect and honesty among the people they lead such thatthey feel as part of the organization and give their best throughaction.
Techniquesof Charismatic Leaders as Job Performance Enhancers
Withinan organization, there is need to generate what is known astransformational effect, and charismatic leaders achieve that throughimplicating the self-concept of followers. In order to induce thefollower’s self-concept, a charismatic leader combines numeroustechniques that help to consolidate various opinions and ideas of theworkers that can help to improve on job performance (DeTreville & Antonakis, 2016, p. 121).For example, these leaders ensure that they enhance the intrinsicefforts alongside the objectives by connecting them to the usefulaspect of self-concept of the employees. Through such techniques,charismatic leaders are able to tap various forces of inspirationsuch as self-worth, self-esteem, self-consistency, andself-expression. Additionally, the charismatic leaders have thecapability to modify the salience chain of values and characteristicsthat fall within the domain of the self-concept of the workers(Uusi-Kakkurietal.,2016, p. 564). In the long run, it will be established that thesevalues and identities or characteristics are implicated in action.Values and identities seem to have a connection to a social base,since their manipulation of follower’s behavior represents a shiftfrom instrumental to the moral. Similarly, the techniques can resultin the transformation from the concern of personal gains tocontributions that are collectively motivated, and the result of suchchanges is increased productivity by the employees throughperformance (Blom& Alvesson, 2015, p. 487).
LeaderBehavior in Enhancing Job Performance
Charismaticleaders display certain behaviors which are essential in determiningthe level of job performance in an organization. Majorly, themotivational processes that result in increased work output can beenhanced through various ways, for instance, role modeling and framealignment(Asrar-ul-Haq & Kuchinke, 2016, p. 56). For example, when a charismatic leader shows some element of a rolemodel, most of the followers can attempt to copy how he or shecarries out duties, or the behavior of the leader as a whole. In theprocess, those who are under the authority of such a leader acquireshis or her qualities, which can, in turn, have an impact on jobperformance as long as the leader’s culture is goal-oriented. Someof the attributes of a charismatic leader that can have a significantinfluence on the followers include preferences, values, aspiration,and emotional reactions, life style, and leader’s behaviors (Blom& Alvesson, 2015, p. 487). Similarly, charismatic leaders ensure that they conduct themselvesdiligently as the employees they govern are constantly watching them. As a result, the charismatic leaders become a representativepersonality who influences job performance by individual attributes(Asrar-ul-Haq& Kuchinke, 2016, p. 60).Therefore, charismatic leaders are capable of making the employees toperform better through their behaviors and culture which remainattractive to the staffs and as such, are emulated by the team beingled, with the outcome being higher work rate and positiveorganizational image.
Earnestly,to build an image of the organization, innovation and restructuringis needed. The efforts of charismatic leaders as innovativeindividuals who are keen to bring about radical change by influencingthe staffs to perform better help the organization to acquire thatimage. Moreover, charismatic authority appears to be more efficientduring challenging moments when extra effort is needed to by theworkforce (Odoardiet al., 2015, p. 557).During such moments, the leaders enhance enthusiasm and action by theemployees beyond anticipation the charismatic behavior of anadministrator during the crises boosts the follower’s sense of jobefficacy or task achievement. Consequently, the staff may be seen toact beyond expectations of the duty to the extent that theorganization growth in terms of productivity and image are bothaugmented. In particular, the individual sacrifices and role modelingby the charismatic authority motivates the workers to copy the leaderby devoting themselves to the mission or vision outlined by theadministrator (Haselberger,2016, p. 11).When the behaviors of such leaders influence the staffs into workingmore, they become increasingly involved in their respective jobs.Through job involvement, each worker becomes mentally committed andidentifies with the organizational goals and objectives, and that, inturn, signifies increased job performance. Thus, as a charismaticleader behaves under the watch of the followers, the latter groupemulates most of the traits that result in high-level jobperformance.
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