CampusSecurity and Impact on Sexual Assaults on College Students
CampusSecurity and Impact on Sexual Assaults on College Students
Despitethe primary objective for colleges to impart knowledge in students,the many institutions are experiencing sexual assault cases, andfaced with the challenge to achieve the academic excellence goals.The cases are not only a threat to the national health sectors butalso impose a challenge to public security since some of thecomplaints have led to different health problems, for instances,reproductive systems complications as well as death (DeMatteoetal.,2015).Therefore, sexual assault among college students is a major problemin the America education system, compelling the conception of severalideologies for prevention. Therefore, the paper reviews someliterature to expose the issues of sexual assaults amongst studentsin campus or college.
Accordingto Fedina,Holmes & Backes (2016),due to the increase in the prevalence of sexual harassment among thecollege students, several questions have been raised in the higherlearning institutions, leading to the establishment of some rules andregulations to reduce the sexual assault incidences. Regulationsprovide answers to protect and handle victims as well as punishingthe perpetrators based on appropriate legislation procedures, butYung(2015)regretted that the present colleges lack potent legislation that cancontain sexual assault cases. Atleast one case of sexual assault reported in each state of America.Similarly, approximately 0.5% per 1000 college students are sexuallyassaulted bringing the number of the sexually assaulted to 207, 7054as reported annually (Stotzeretal.,2015).Furthermore, students have always gone into streets rioting due tothe high rate of sexual violence cases in colleges. Skinner& Gross (2016)determined that in every five women, at least one was affected bysexual abuse in her college time. Yung(2015)added that some form of sexual violence experienced by collegestudents included inappropriate sexual contact such as forced sexualtouching, oral and anal sex, as well as sexual intercourse by use offingers forcefully. According to study done by Stotzeretal.(2015),during the academic year 2014/2015, approximately 6.4% of the collegefemales experienced sexual harassment either through rape, datingviolence, intimate partner violence, or stalking. Similarly, Fedinaetal.(2016) indicatedthat the majority of women are always sexually harassed at the age ofrange of 18 and 24, which is considered as the average collegestudents’ age.
Accordingto Jina& Thomas (2013),approximately 35% and 13% of the college students attempted andcompleted rape incidences respectively as they were on a date. Sexualharassment can affect college students negatively either on a long orshort-term health problems. For instance, in rape cases, students cancontract sexually transmitted disease, exhibit poor eating habits aswell as chronic diseases, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and someare even totally depressed leading to poor performance in class work(Jina& Thomas, 2013).In addition, Streng& Kamimura (2015) asserted that somestudents might engage in harmful substance abuse such as alcoholbesides drugs which might cause further victimization. Furthermore,some of the rape case incidences are not reported by the students asthey fear stigmatization by other students, some even feel ashamed ofthemselves thus, they seek for anonymity (Streng& Kamimura, 2015).For instance, in his study, Stotzeretal.(2015) determinedthat roughly 7% of the total rape case incidences were reported tothe school administration to take actions. In fact, on average, nineout of ten college girls knew their perpetrators, majority of whichwere their close male friends or ex-male friends as well as theirclassmates (Stotzeretal.,2015).For that reason, DeMatteoetal.,2015 concluded that rapeincidences in college campus are not done by strangers but byindividuals well recognized to the victims,and can easily be regulated through security policy interventions.
Additionally,some institutional factors are considered to increase collegestudents’ prevalence to sexual harassment. For instance, the studyby Jina& Thomas (2013) determined that highalcohol consumption rate among college students is largely attributedto college location, as some are positioned within rural and or urbanenvironment at proximity to alcohol distributors. That, coupled withminimal full-time security issued to students by the staffs, is theprimary factors leading to rape cases (Jina& Thomas, 2013).Students finding themselves in colleges with heavy drinking habitsare at high risk for more and severe sexual harassment. Likewise,various vital factors based on social and cultural matters (e.g. thewatching of pornographic videos) explain the high sexual incidencesamong the college students (Skinneret al., 2016).For example, both individual conducts and background risks lead tosexual assault among campus students.
Similarly,DeMatteoetal.(2015)concurred that most sexual harassment cases occur when the offendersare motivated, as they are always men linked to getting involved inmasculinity culture on campus that encourages sexual hostility towardcollege women. Thus, various initiatives are established both by thegovernment and college campuses to understand the problem. But toachieve the initiatives, further research is needed to comprehend theinstitutional risk factors that might increase sexual harassmentincidences, its frequent occurrence as well as the numbers ofstudents victimized (Yung,2015).The implementation of adequate security measures will ensure that thecases of substance use are regulated, and the population of learnersinvolved in such issues as watching pornography is controlledalongside education of the trainees regarding societal morals andethics against sexual harassment (Yung,2015).Moreover, a further study by Yung(2015) determinedthat sexual harassment was common among the newly admitted studentsto campus, specifically ladies, as compared to seniors in their firstweeks of school. Also, the study bySkinner (2016) revealedthat fresh college students experienced severe sexual harassmentwithin their fast four semesters. Correspondingly, younger ladies aremost likely to be assaulted sexually as compared to other senior andolder students (Jina& Thomas, 2013),and that requires policy input to ensure that the situation iscontained in campus (Yung,2015).
Thevarious studies reviewed concerning the prevalence and prevention ofsexual harassment in campus indicated that the problem is severe inthe learning institutions, calling for the need to comprehend therisk factors by the federal government and the education stakeholdersas a whole. Therefore, it is high time for higher learninginstitutions to employ better strategies on how to efficiently tacklethe sexual assault matter so as to enhance secure and better learningenvironment for students. Similarly, campuses should engage properguidelines to handle the sexual victims in appropriate manner whichdoes not make the student embarrassed and traumatized.
DeMatteo,D., Galloway, M., Arnold, S., & Patel, U. (2015). Sexual assaulton college campuses: A 50-state survey of criminal sexual assaultstatutes and their relevance to campus sexual assault. Psychology,Public Policy, and Law, 21(3), 227.
Fedina,L., Holmes, J. L., & Backes, B. L. (2016). Campus Sexual AssaultA Systematic Review of Prevalence Research From 2000 to 2015. Trauma,Violence, & Abuse, 1524838016631129.
Jina,R., & Thomas, L. S. (2013). Health consequences of sexualviolence against women. Best Practice & Research ClinicalObstetrics & Gynaecology, 27(1), 15-26.
Skinner,J., & Gross, M. (2016). The ISSAS Model: Understanding theInformation Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses.College & Research Libraries, crl16-882.
Stotzer,R. L., & MacCartney, D. (2015). The role of institutional factorson on-campus. reported rape prevalence. Journal of interpersonalviolence, 0886260515580367.
Streng,T. K., & Kamimura, A. (2015). Sexual Assault Prevention andReporting on College Campuses in the US: A Review of Policies andRecommendations. Journalof Education and Practice, 6(3),65-71.
Yung,C. R. (2015). Concealing campus sexual assault: An empiricalexamination. Psychology,public policy, and law, 21(1),1.