is not a new phenomenon and it has been in existence for along time. Whereas the term bullying has been predominantly used inschool settings especially primary and secondary schools, it isessential to note that the behavior can occur anywhere including inworkplaces and home settings. Notably, there exist a varied number ofdefinitions of the term bullying. This is because the tenets of thebehavior are dynamic1.However, it is generally accepted that bullying constitutesaggressive and repetitive actions aimed at threatening, abuse orforce another person to act in a manner that pleases the aggressor.This behavior as been criticized and ridiculed across the world dueto the adverse effects it has on the victims. It is essential to notethat many of the incidences of bullying occur in school and affectchildren aged between 7 and 15 years2.This is the transition period from primary school to secondaryschool. In order to fully understand this aspect, it is important tolook at the various types of bullying, the people involved, the riskfactors, effects of bullying, and the strategies of dealing with thevice.
Thesis: is caused by personal, religious, cultural,racial, sexual, and age differences, but there are strategies thatcan be used to reduce the influence that such factors have on thisvice.
For bullying to occur, there must be the perpetrator, known as theaggressor, and the victim. In many instances, there are differencesbetween the aggressor and the victim. For instance, they might befrom different age groups, religions, political divides, race ornationalities. While the aggressive behavior may not be solelyassociated with these differences, it is important to note that theydo play a central role in promoting bullying and harassment.Extensive research has indicated that learners are bullied by peoplewho are older than them and who are physically powerful than them. Ina bullying scenario, there are active and passive victims3.Passive victims are recipients of aggressive and abusive actions whohardly provoke or react. Conversely, provocative victims incite theirabusers through insults or intimidation. They are likely to reactwhen harassed and they are not liked in their social groups. Thereare instances where this type of victims can be aggressors.Aggressors can either be active of passive. Active aggressors tend toinitiate bullying and harassment on their own. The passive aggressorsmust be provoked in order to react. Aggressors are said to behostile, dominant and aggressive towards students and teachers, aswell as lacking empathy. Furthermore, they value violence as a toolof achieving their goals.
While goals of bullying might be uniform across various settings,there exist varied forms of bullying. For long, bullying has beenthought as being only physical where boys kick, punch and hurt eachother. However, this is only one form of several types of bullyingthat occur. Notably, physical bullying is the most common form ofbullying where people use physical force to intimidate others andcontrol them, while gaining power over them4.Documented research has indicated this form of bullying isperpetrated by people who are physically bigger than their victims.It is an extremely common form of bullying hence the reason it hasreceived tremendous attention from various stakeholders. Physicalbullying may involve kicking, slapping, punching or shoving with theintention of intimidating another person. It is easy to identify thisform of bullying since injuries to the victim act as the evidence.However, this is not the case for verbal bullying which is the secondform of bullying. This occurs when an aggressor uses insults,name-calling and derogative statements to gain control over anotherperson while belittling or demeaning such a person5.Furthermore, aggressors may spread rumors about their victim. In mostcases, the bully will target weak characters such as the disabled.While this type of bullying is mostly overlooked by the adults, it isessential to note that it can leave victims with permanent emotionalscars. While attempting to investigate cases of verbal bullying andharassment, adults have found it extremely difficult to gather anyevidence since they have to rely solely on word of mouth.
Another form of bullying that is growing extremely quickly is cyberbullying. This occurs when an aggressor uses technology to threaten,harass or embarrass his or her target. Many bullies are resorting tothis form of bullying since they consider themselves as beinganonymous and detached from the situation. Furthermore, bullies canbe extremely cruel online since they can say things that could nothave been said in a face-to-face situation. Cyber bullying involvesthe posting of hurtful photos, messages, sending threats throughemails, social media or text messages, as well as sending abusive andhurtful emails. Notably, the teenagers are always online in socialmedia platforms such as Facebook and Twitter and therefore, they areprone to this form of bullying. They meet with strangers online andbecome online friends. At times teens have been convinced to sendtheir photographs including half naked one to strangers. Later, theseonline friends can threaten to post such pictures online if thevictim does not meet their demands.
The last form of bullying that is hardly noticed by either theparents or the teachers is the relational bullying. This occurs whena group of people decide to exclude one of them from social groupssuch as lunch eating groups or sports groups. For example, a groupcould be organizing for a weekend party while ignoring one of themwho is in close proximity. This form of harassment is common amongstteenage girls. Mostly, victims of relational bullying hardly reportto parents or teachers, but tend to portray a secluded behavior anddepict loneliness. It is essential for parents and teachers to knowthat relational bullying is a serious issue and it can result inadverse effects on victims.
According to the National Center for Educational Statistics 2015,approximately 22% students are bullied during their school time. Thisis a rate of one in every four learners. Most of the people who arebullied are aged between 14 and 18 years. Furthermore, institutionhas asserted that only 36% of students reported being bullied6.In 57% of bullying cases, an intervention by a peer helps to stop theharassment. However school intervention programs are said to reducebullying with up to 25%. There are varied reasons that contribute tobullying. Top among them is looks, body shape and race.
Risk Factors for
There are various risk factors for bullying. Primarily, individualdifferences such as physical body size, looks, body shape, race,religion, social class and nationality can significantly increase therisk of bullying. People who feel that they belong to dominant races,religions or social classes are likely to bully others. Diversity inschool ensures that learning institutions comprise of people fromdifferent backgrounds. This is a major risk factor for bullying. Lackof sufficient resources to be shared amongst a group of people can berisk factor bullying. Some aggressive students might want to getassets from their peers forcefully7.Therefore, different economic classes can be viewed as a risk factor.Individual personality is yet another risk factor for bullying. Thereare some learners who are naturally aggressive and abusive in nature.These are likely to initiate harassments.
has numerous effects on both the victims and theaggressors. For the victims, the harassment and abuses leave themwith permanent emotional scars. This affects their learning processand might eventually affect their examination outcomes. Furthermore,victims of bullying hardly associate with their peers and they end updeveloping stress and depression. Evidently, physical bullying hasresulted in physical harm on some people and in some cases evendeath8.Additionally, there are some victims of bullying who end upcommitting suicide after developing depression. Research has alsoindicated that learners who experience harassment show changes insleeping patterns, lack of interest in activities they used to enjoybefore and feelings of anxiety. There are numerous victims ofbullying who have ended up refusing to attend school and have forcedtheir parents to transfer them to other schools.
There are various steps that stakeholders can take towards dealingwith the issue of bullying. Firstly, there needs to be extremelystrict and implementable laws prohibiting and punishing aggressors.If possible, bullying should be stopped or prevented. It is importantto educate the community, the students, teachers and otherstakeholders on bullying and how it affects others. Furthermore,learners must be involved in developing solutions to bullying. Theywill propose the steps that should be taken and this will highlyreduce incidences of bullying. Get students to participate indeveloping anti-bullying programs in school. Students are likely toadopt strategies that they have developed more than the one that theyare imposed upon. Moreover, stakeholders must get to the root of thecauses of bullying such as race and religion.
While concluding, it is evident that there are numerous students whosuffer from bullying and harassment and never report. With only 35%of the victims reporting, it is clear that bullying has been accepteda developmental stage that every person must pass. However, theeffects that bullying has are adverse and therefore, it cannot beignored. Various forms of bullying exist, but they all have similargoals and intentions to threaten, intimidate and hurt the victim.The teenagers are largely affected by this vice. Differences in race,age, social class, religion, nationality and sexual orientation arefactors contributing significantly to this vice. A strategy thatincludes the learners in the formulation of ways of dealing withbullying will be effective.
Gale, Eric K. The Bully Book: A Novel. Place ofpublication not identified: HarperCollins, 2015. Print.
Gary D. Phye. : Implications for the Classroom.Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013. Print.
Lines, Dennis. The Bullies: Understanding Bullies and. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2013. Print.
McCarthy, Paul. : From Backyard to Boardroom.Annandale, N.S.W: The Federation Press, 2014. Print.
Mishna, Faye. : A Guide to Research, Intervention,and Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. Print.
Nancy B. B. Meyer. Cyber : Protecting Kids and Adultsfrom Online Bullies. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers, 2012.Print.
1 Nancy B. B. Meyer. Cyber : Protecting Kids and Adults from Online Bullies. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers, 2012. Print.
2 Lines, Dennis. The Bullies: Understanding Bullies and . London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2013. Print.
3 Gale, Eric K. The Bully Book: A Novel. Place of publication not identified: HarperCollins, 2015. Print. Pp 101
4  Gary D. Phye. : Implications for the Classroom. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013. Print. Pp 85
5 McCarthy, Paul. : From Backyard to Boardroom. Annandale, N.S.W: The Federation Press, 2014. Print. Pp 125.
6 Mishna, Faye. : A Guide to Research, Intervention, and Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. Print. Pp 114.
7 Lines, Dennis. The Bullies: Understanding Bullies and . London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2013. Print. Pp 89.
8 Gale, Eric K. The Bully Book: A Novel. Place of publication not identified: HarperCollins, 2015. Print. Pp 99.