Freedomrefers to the liberty or ability to engage in any activity withoutrestrain. The 16th century marked the beginning of the quest forfreedom given the existing harsh and enslaving political regimes.Many civil freedom movements and other related bodies emerged todemand changes in the current system, which lay emphasis on racialinequality, gender disparity, and ethical discrepancies. One groupthat played a significant role in supporting such movements was thechurch. It introduced the Protestant Reformation movement to counterand reform the Roman Catholic practices and beliefs. Despite the coremotivation of the mentioned reformation being theological, severalfactors acted as supplements following the aggressive nature of thepolitical rulers, who desired to extend their control and power.Nationalism, western schism, humanism, and the Roman Curia corruptionsupplemented the religious aspects of the movement. The churchleaders considered the origin of bribery as doctrinal and not a moralweakness. Therefore, their main aim was to alter the contemporarydoctrines to concur with what they assume to be then ‘true gospel.`This paper is based on the role of church leaders in supporting thefreedom movements by looking into their efforts to abolish vices suchas corruption, slavery, and racism. Much emphasis has been put on theProtestant Reformation, and a philosopher referred to Richard Price.
Thechurch leaders’ zeal to spread the gospel was an influential factorin supporting freedom movements in the sense that it fought againstthe persecution of individuals. One of the motivating factors for theestablishment of the Protestant movement was to do away with thereligious reforms that advocated for the persecution of people1
TheMovement was essential in various ways in the struggle to have theirfreedom. The religious activists used it to support freedom actionsthrough fighting against ethnicity. Under this reformation, thechurch leaders established missions to educate the people fromdifferent ethnic backgrounds on the appropriate Catholic ways. Thesemissions taught and converted individuals from diverse ethnic originsto Catholicism and acted as a way to make them informed of themistreatments that they underwent. For instance, the religiousleaders established church missions in Latin America to obtainconverts and fight against ethnicity. This move was consideredrevolutionary given that it advocated against the perpetualenslavement of the Latino Americans by the Spanish land proprietors.It is worth remarking that the mistreatment of native individualsbased on their ethnic background was a justified act in the Spanish’sbarbaric practices. Therefore, the introduction of the mentionedmissions offered a platform to fight against discrimination ofindividuals based on ethnic background, which was one of the majoraspects of freedom movements.
Moreover,it played an essential role in supporting the freedom movements byfighting against gender inequality in the society. The concernedreligious leaders of the group raised the eminence of women in thesociety in various ways. They believed that an educated woman couldact as a future teacher in the society or a nurturer in her homesteadthus encouraged the empowerment of the girls by advocating theireducation2.These leaders also emphasized the importance of matrimony and therole the women should play in a Christian home. This move relates tothe ideologies expressed by various freedom movements, which laidemphasis on the fight against gender inequality.
Supportof the activities of the liberation movement by encouraging economicreforms was also part of its contribution. The church activists didthis by using their writings to influence the weak and supporteconomic improvements. For instance, Martin Luther’s writing andevangelization had a significant impact on the needy or in demandingcommercial modifications via the armed revolution, which took placein the German states. However, despite Luther’s constant support ofthe economic reforms, he condemned the violent deeds of the laborers.
Thereformers also contributed to the independence movement activities byencouraging literacy among the people. The truth of this idea isproved by considering that they emphasized the acquisition ofknowledge to enable their followers to read the scriptures. Forinstance, William Tyndale and Martin Luther translated the scripturereadings into their vernacular languages to ensure that theircountrymen in England and Germany understood them3.This move encouraged efforts of the movement because the scripturereadings enlightened the people into various forms of injustices inthe society.
Thereligious leaders provided a platform where people could meet. Thechurch acted as a venue where different economic and social groupsconverged and talked about the injustices present in the society. The‘haves’ and the ‘haves not’ realized that it was the onlysafe platform that they could utilize to bond with one another andshare their sufferings. Individuals from the mid-west, northeast andsouthern churches converged in one place to form a large congregationhaving the same revolutionary ideas. They then chose to pour out tothe streets as a visible indication of a co-operative society towardsachieving the greater goals of the freedom movements. The peopleexhibited confidence that they obtained from reading the scripturesand the songs they sang in church. The church also gave individualsand the freedom movements unwavering resolve. The hope that thepeople obtained from their leaders created a sense of perseveranceamongst them, in the belief that God would protect them from anydifficulties.
Inthe slavery era, the black churches had a primary role in freedom andsurvival. The church leaders and the congregation helped the blackrace shy away from the horrors of slavery. They also preserved thechristen themes geared towards liberation. For instance, theyproclaimed integrity and condemned the theologian’s alteration ofthe social justice and liberation message from Jesus so that theycould practice slavery. Such action gave them the courage to supportthe ideals of the freedom movements present in the 16th to 18thcentury.
RichardPrice is known to be a moral philosopher, Presbyterian preacher andeconomic theorist who supported the American Revolution. He gaveunexceptional hope for a new period in the history of humankind thatwas characterized by civil liberty, equal possession of land, soundeconomic ideologies and wise distribution of political power4.As he praised the Americans, he also made sure that they were awareof their uncertain position. As he praised the Americans, he alsoensured that they were aware about their uncertain position. He saidthat they were supposed to nurture their infant nation with theirideals, protect against the age-old infirmities of human nature andif not, the revolution would stand to be an entrance to an era ofdegeneracy and oppression of people instead of an inspiration of hopeand a sanctuary to the world. In his writing, he informed peopleabout various issues that would help in the revolution. Theseincluded liberty, education, peace, debt and wars, uneven wealthdistribution oaths and slavery.
Mostleaders in the church also used their power to participate in thereform processes by fighting racism in the society. Reverend RichardPrice is well known for his adamant contribution in the fight againstthe discrimination of the black community and his efforts towards theAmerican Revolution. He used his philosophic abilities to come upwith writings that highlighted and condemned against slavery andracial discrimination. He wrote about the Negro trade and slaverywhere he said that it must be abolished, condemned and that he waspleased by the way the United States were ensuring measures ofdiscountenancing it and for ending the horrible oppression that ithad brought. He said that it was a traffic trade which was dreadfulto humanity, harsh, evil and diabolical5
Hegave an example of his country Britain where a black person became afree man once he entered in the city. No such slavery and oppressionhad been witnessed, and other countries were urged to emulate thenation. He supposed that the liberation of the black community was tobe left to some extent and become a custom. He also said thatnothing was to excuse the United Nations if it did not abolish thetrade fast enough and at the same time effectively as their precisesituation would allow. As a result of the work he began,discrimination and racism have not been allowed up to date. We livein a free world where all people are created in the image of God.
Severalleaders and movements played a role in the achievement of freedom.Their efforts had fruits despite the wars and the struggle that ledthe nations there. So much blood shed in this quest, but eventually,there was the gain of liberty, racism, discrimination, and slaverycame to a stop.
Thenineteenth century marked a time when different groups, races, andreligions affected Christianity across diverse cultures andgeographical boundaries. Ellen G. White is a renowned religiousleader that lived in the nineteenth century and significantlyinfluenced the Christian faith between 1827 and 19156.Additionally, she produced numerous writings that still influence thespiritual lives of many people across the globe. Notably, herwritings greatly influenced the Seventh Day Adventist’s religiousways of lives, and Ellen emerges as an idealist who engaged inAfrican-American Outreach and visited Australia to demonstrate theglobal aspect of Christianity in addressing developing trends acrossgeographical boundaries. Moreover, through the Great Controversy andPatriarchs and her prophetic writing and traveling she managed toportray the great Christianity image to different groups, races,gender, and spirituality. This paper looks at a historical figureEllen. G. White, the Battle Creek College influence, the healthreform vision and her Great Controversy vision that inspired thecross-cultural aspects that grew within the nineteenth century.
TheAdvent Message by Ellen portrays her desire for revelation from Godthrough studying the Bible. The message she relayed emerged fromOctober 22, 1844, due to disappointment when their anticipated returnof Christ did not materialize. This led to a lot of souls searching,reading the Bible and praying to receive guidance during the tryingtimes. Many Adventists lost faith and questioned if the churchpreached the true Word of God. However, Ellen received a visionduring a prayer session in South Portland that portrayed the Adventfollowers entering the City of God. The vision marked a significantpoint in the Church life since she relayed the message to thePortland believers who accepted it and at the age of seventeen, shestarted transforming many religious lives. Other than engaging inBible reading, prayers, and interpretations, Ellen involved inmissionary work. The move aimed at influencing her fellow youths toparticipate in the heralding of the Advent message at a time whenmany had lost faith. The missionary work stands out within theSeventh Day Adventist church to the present as a tool that favorsspreading the Word of God to different parts of the world. Therefore,her visions helped influence the element of beliefs among the Adventfollowers.
Therevelation from God prodded Ellen to travel with her family todifferent parts and relay the message, but this did not go down wellwith some Adventists that faced disappointment from God’s failureto come to them. She suffered ridicule, and at the time, women faceda lot of gender oppression, but her desire did not falter. However,God revealed himself to her, she saw the outcome of the positivemoves, and this motivated her to persist through highlighting errorand reproving wrong7. Ellen emerged as a religious leader despite few women leadersholding no positions of leadership at the time within the society.Her desire to travel to different parts of the country and world,Europe, shaped the spread of the Word of God to different parts andfrom community to community by the Seventh Advent followers thushelping the Church to record great growth. Therefore, Ellen emergesas a true advocate of Christianity through action and portrays womenas an important group that can influence the growth of the churchdisputing the notion that women could not hold positions ofleadership.
Ellen’smarriage played a significant role in her ministry and spread ofChristianity to different parts, across the boundary. Ellen Harmonmarried James White, an Adventist preacher who helped her start herfirst publications that play a significant role within the ChristianFaith. After their marriage, James and Ellen studied the 46-pagetract that Joseph Bates published and led to the revelation thatSaturday was the ideal Sabbath day. Additionally, Ellen received avision six months into her marriage that consisted of a halo lightreflection around God’s fourth commandment. This evidence helpedconfirm the Adventists view of the Sabbath and influenced theChristian following across the world. The marriage proved to be aninsightful moment in Ellen’s life despite the numerous financialchallenges that they faced in their early years of marriage. However,their resolve to preach God’s word across different regions such asthe railroads and hayfield proved to be a fulfilling moment in thespread of God’s message. The marriage helped coin Saturday as thereal Sabbath day for the Seventh Day Adventists, her preaching helpedall followers accept it, and this is apparent across the world.Therefore, Ellen White played a significant role within the time toinfluence Christianity through action to different groups, races,gender, and religion affecting Christianity across varying culturesand geographical boundaries in the nineteenth century.
Thebeginning of publishing in 1849 while at Rocky Hill, Connecticut withthe support of James White helped her in spreading the Word of God8. White began with The Present Truth a semimonthly paper, and theycontained Ellen White’s prophetic views about the church, warning,and counsel to the Christian congregation. In 1851, Mrs. White gother book published, A Sketch of the Christian Experience and Views ofAllen G White, that helped give her views on the Christian ways.Additionally, she managed to do the Supplement in 1854, and herpublications got published in the Rochester papers between 1852 and1855. The use of paper to spread the release helped reach many peopleand influence their ways of lives based on Ellen G. White’steachings and visions. The process was favored by the adventbelievers’ move in Michigan to invite Whites to Battle Creek wherea printing house was to be started. Upon relocating to Battle Creek,Ellen read several teachings to the congregation and approved thatthe information favored the growth of the Advent church and thisdemonstrates the impact that she had on her audience. Additionally,Battle Creek printing house helped in favoring Ellen’s publicationand spread the Christianity teachings across different cultures andgeographical boundaries in the nineteenth century9.The book by the Advent church is a common phenomenon that the Adventbelievers utilize to spread God’s word in the twenty-first century.Therefore, Ellen G. White managed to grow the use of publications andinfluence a helpful trend that favors the growth of the Adventfollowers across the world that demonstrates her impact acrossdifferent cultures and geographical boundaries in the nineteenthcentury.
EllenWhite shared the Health Reform Vision, which showed a strongrelationship between spirituality and physical health. Ellen used theHealth Reform Vision to promote the growth of the Advent church.Sound body health and ability to eat right diet, sustain good health,and through the vision, Ellen challenged her Advent brothers andsisters to adhere to good eating habits. Before the revelation,little emphasis on health matters existed and this made them loseseveral ministers that succumbed to different sickness. This portraysEllen’s relevance to the growth and sustenance of a healthycongregation that performed better religious duties optimally. Thechurch supported her thoughts, and this led to the publication of sixpamphlets that consisted of 64 pages each that formed part of theSeventh- day Adventists message. The church had lost Henry Whiteprematurely at the age of 16, and Elder James White due to illnessand Ellen saw that this affected the ministry of the AdventistChurch10.Therefore, the importance of vision to the church impressed theelders and received backing as an ideal way of life that favored thegrowth of the church.
TheWestern Health Reform Institute opened in September 1866 through thechurch support and represented numerous health centers that thechurch set up in different parts of the world to date11.Therefore, Ellen G. White managed to start and influence asignificant trend that favors the growth of the Advent followersacross the world that demonstrates her power across differentcultures and geographical boundaries in the nineteenth century. Atthe time, the church played an insignificant role in theestablishment of health supporting institutions, but this changedthrough Ellen’s involvement. The institutions helped portray healthas a critical human amenity that requires sustaining even throughchurch funding thus promoting good health.
EllenWhite traveled far and wide to spread her visions, and Europeremained integral to her mission. She received numerous invitesduring the General Conferences, and in the fall of 1885, she made herfirst visit to Europe. Her stay lasted until the summer of 1887, andEllen toured Switzerland, Basel, Germany, England, Denmark, France,Italy Sweden and Norway. Notably, she visited the Waldensian valleysin Italy that appeared to her in her visions and portrayed Dark Agesand Reformation. This shows that her work was not limited to hercountry but visited other nation across the world that desired to herGod’s word. Her visit helped shape the plans and policies thatformed the Seventh Day Adventist church in Europe, and this trickleddown to other churches in different parts of the country. Moreover,after the 1891 General Conference, Ellen received an urgent call tocounsel and pioneer the church12.Her visit marked an era that led to the expansion and growth of theSeventh-day Adventist church in the southern continent. Therefore,her active role in establishing the Advent Church in Australiaemphasizes her influence on cultural rituals, customs, and beliefsthrough the establishment of new churches.
Additionally,her visit to the press house resembled what she saw in her dreams.Her desire for an established media house was evident since it playeda significant role in spreading God’s word to places thatexceptional church elders could not reach. Additionally, she realizedthe need to establish a learning institution in Australia that couldeducate the Seventh Adventist church’s youth in Australia. Shebelieved in schooling young people in a Christian environment thatguided their ideals. This led to a response in 1892 when theestablishment of a Bible school in Melbourne, Australia took place.Therefore, Ellen G. White managed to start and influence an improvingtrend that favors the growth of the Advent followers across the worldthat demonstrates her power across different cultures andgeographical boundaries in the nineteenth century. She emphasizes theneed to guide the youth by Christian teachings, and it helped ininstilling Adventist church ideals and belies from an early stage oflife. The trend favors the growth of institutions a key element ofculture to spread religious teachings and ideals to many youths andto promote the spread of Christianity.
Socialjustice is the act of encouraging a just community by condemninginequality and appreciating diversity. It is evident in cases whereindividuals share mutual humanity and as a result deserve equaltreatment, fair resource allocation, and provision of their humanrights. When justice is observed discrimination by, race,socioeconomic class, gender, and disability are not allowed. Socialjustice means that there exist equal opportunities to all in thesociety.
Lookingback at the previous years, we have had various philosophers addressthe issue of social justice and rebuke instances of unfairness. Let’slook at three famous people who have discussed this theme in theirresearch. These include Ellen G White, Richard Allen and RogerWilliam. Ellen talks about Social Justice by emulating the deeds ofJesus Christ on earth. The way Jesus responded to the poor, theoppressed, and the sick. He says that Christ needs us to bear thefruits of good actions such as talking kindly to the poor, beingtender and helping the needy and the afflicted13.When we become sympathetic with the discouraged, those in grief,stretch our hands to the poor, clothe those who are naked and welcomestrangers warmly to our hearts and houses, angels tend to approach,and we receive the answer to our strains. Heaven rejoices whenever wepractice justice, kindness, and benevolence and God rewards his mostprecious treasures to those who are involved in these acts and alsobeholds them. Also, he says that a close relationship with Jesus canbe established by being friends with orphans, supporting the deprivedand emphasizing with those go through distress and oppression. Hequotes from many verses of the Bible in emphasis to his words. Anexample of some of the verses includes Psalms 41:1 those who areconsiderate to the poor are blessed, God will come to their rescue inperiods of suffering. Proverbs 14: 31 he who persecute the needycriticizes his God, but those who honor him will be sympathize withthe unfortunate. Verse 59 says that those who have assisted the poorlend to God and he will pay the debt14
RogerWilliams also had dreams for the establishment of an asylum for theoppressed. He realized the impossibility of reforming the currentinstitutions in New England in the time he was thinking about hisbanishment sentence. For him to recognize his dreams, there would bean essence of asylum establishment for those who were going throughoppression and the maltreated in America and Europe respectively.This became his primary objective when he was banished. He had thebelief that so as to facilitate ultimate peace and affluence, thechurch and nation needed to be fully detached in its function andthat the truth was the solution. Similarly, the Puritans believed inthe liberty of religion, but they were against any dissecting sectwhich opposed their faith from enjoying it. For them to enjoy thereligious independence in worship, which was restricted in Englandformerly when the Puritan government was not yet in authority underOliver Cromwell, they had to flee to America. Once the Puritansgained the power, they deprived of people the freedom of religionwhich they had previously demanded. Oliver Cromwell condemned thisact and brought the deed to exposure of the Presbyterians and theIndependents when he was giving a speech on dissolving thegovernment. He said that it was naïve to demand freed and that thereis so much hypocrisy for those who went through oppression underbishop to turn out to be great oppressors just when the removal oftheir yoke happened. All sects that came to power that had beenvictims of oppression also became oppressors to the weak. Roger hadcome to terms with the idea and love principle, and he and his peoplepracticed it. The people of America did a good job when theyrendered him a late justice and respect in the commemoration of hismemory celebration.
RichardAllen also fought for social justice as he was the founder of AfricanMethodist Episcopal (A.M.E) church. Free African Society led to theestablishment of this church in Philadelphia as the 18th century cameto an end. The community was responding to the discrimination thatprevailed against the black Methodists who asked for assistance fromthe funds found in the charity funds in the church. Even before thechurch’s primary association which happened in 1794, the firstreligious assembly had already been documented around nine yearsearlier.15Therewas the minimal cruelty of the oppression of the free blacks wholived in Philadelphia. The strength of the discrimination of theblacks by the white Methodists acted as a catalyst for the formationof an original congregation with Richard Allen being the minister.Allen and the white Methodists frontrunners worked out on themanuscript that founded the church. The group of worshipers onAllen’s side would continue being part of the Methodist church, butthey would be in control of their affairs. There was an expectationof mass misunderstanding by church ladder and also the hope ofcreating a structure of checks and equality between the white leadersand black authority. From 1794 to 1810, the members of Bethel Churchincreased from 40 to 400 as a result of the tension that flared.White Methodists were hopeful of impressing upon the new changingsociety that its independence was still limited.
Mr.Williams, do you think the sentence that was given about your civilbanishment by the magistrate was done by the counsel and approval ofMr. Cotton?" asked Ellen White.
Williamreplied,” The weapons that we fight with are not carnal, but arepowerful through God to the dragging down of grips letting go everyimagination and all high things that are exalted in the opposition ofGod’s knowledge.
“Thereis no justice in the act, and many of the people who are in agreementto my banishment made a testimony. Even though it was hard, theyconfessed to the entire world that if it were not for Mr. Cotton,they would not have given the consent of the sentence. I have thedesires of being benevolent just as charity would come to my rescue,and consequently, I have high hopes that either Mr. Cotton had amemory loss or rather at the moment of my judgment, he was hesitantof consenting.
“Asper my perspective, the punishment brought to Williams at the Salemtrial before his expulsion by Mr. Cotton, was not just at all and hedid not deserve it”, said Richard. However, it happened, and itonly molded you into a better person if I am right.
Thedoctrine of damnable heresy is the charge against which Williams’sabolishment was passed and declared that his actions had to bepunished. “Was this ideology correct or it was just a way of thepeople justifying their evil actions? asked Ellen
“Thevending and suppression of spiritual corn are both spirituallylinked, and as a result, they must be about mystical curse, and thereis no possibility that it could be applied to temporal demise oreviction,” replied Mr. Williams
“Fora moment, I could think that Mr. Cotton was acting in in the name ofthe Lord, but then Jesus is the author of forgiveness and fairness,and I could not support his deeds,” Ellen argued.
RichardAllen says “I dedicate my cause to those who give judgmentsrighteously, and still decide to pray against their sinful deeds.”
“Iwill give a Bible verse from the book of Isaiah 2:4 and Micah 4:3 toemphasize on what you said,” William says. And they will beat theirblades into plowshares and their spikes into clipping hook. No onewill hurt or destroy in any hill of my holiness as evidence that thechurch of Christians is not allowed to bring to use the carnalweapons or rather to carry out persecution.
“Wecan all acknowledge that the people of God especially those whocondemn the vices in the society and government are not embraced inthe community.” Ellen White says. This began in the bible withpersons like Elijah who condemned the prophet of Baal and the worshipof idols, and in return, Jezebel persecuted him and Jeremiah who gaveGods message about the judgment of Judah. Just like the holy biblegraphically gives a description of the beginning of sin in the entirenation it also portrays the reality and occurrence of cruelty andtorture. It shows instances of persons persecuting God himself,people harassing others, nations disagreeing with each other, therighteous being under the oppression of the wicked and also some ofthe good people mistreating evil ones.
Mr.Williams responds, “I do agree with you, Mr. Ellen. I am not afraidof anything in this world and things that people may do to me butinstead I fear the one who created me because he knew me beforeanyone knew I would come to existence. I aspire to be in the holypresence of God and in fighting for what matters like saving thesouls of men and encouraging the discouraged.
“Inthe same case I think of the poor, the oppressed, the neglected andthe despised people in the society,” replied Ellen White. Thedifficulties that these people go through in their daily life touchesme, and sometimes I realize that despite how I sympathize with them,I cannot control what every needy person in the world experiences.However, putting my knowledge in writing can be of help as theinformation can be accessed by many people. In my book ‘Workingwith the poor,` I explain that maybe in most cases, the youngindividuals are not attracted a lot by an entertaining church but onewhich gives them the challenge to serve others. They may not belongto a church because they are looking for one that calls for theirhidden idealism by asking them to become mediators of God’srevolution so as bring justice and healing to his shattered nation.
Thatis very true Mr. Ellen. I also ask about those who are part of otherforms of worship like anti-Christ, how they remain peaceful to thedifficulties of the world and if they are capable of loving andoffering help to their neighbors, exercising fairness, being true andloyal their country.
“Itis evident that they may,” says Mr. Allen. They gain experiencefrom many prosperous cities and Kingdom in the world, and as aresult, they do not offend against the public state and peace. Othersdo all the good deeds that other Christians do they obey the rulesso that they do not incur the civil sword Nevertheless if we look attheir spiritual and mystical account, these people are voracious andgreedy wolves.
“Aswe end our conversation, I would like to say that being just toeveryone in all matters, gives an inner satisfaction that you cannotget from having a huge sum of money or rather being wealthy,” Mr.Ellen White commented. “Devoting to helping the poor, the needy,the oppressed and the discriminated in the society is living for agoal that is greater than any individual thus the fullness of life.”
Socialjustice is responsible for assigning privileges and responsibilitiesin organizations of any given society which facilitates people toreceive the rudimentary reimbursements of the cooperation. It istherefore important in almost every area of our life as it helpsprevent various evils in the world
Cone,Carl B. Torchbearerof Freedom: TheInfluence of Richard Price on Eighteenth Century Thought.Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2015
EllenG White, ACall to Stand Apart: Challenging Young Adults to Make an EternalDifference(Selections from the Writings of Ellen G. White) Paperback,2002.
Fortin,Denis, and Jerry Moon. The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia. 1st ed. NewYork: Review and Herald Publishing, 2014.
Mullet,Michael. MartinLuther.England: Routledge Publishers, 2014. Urquhart, George O`Neil. Crisisand Emergency Management and Preparedness for the
African-AmericanChurch Community:Biblical Application from a Theological Perspective.2014.
White,Ellen. Healthful living. New York: Create Space IndependentPublishing, 2016.
1Michael, Mullet Martin Luther. (England: Routledge Publishers, 2014), 4.
2 Ibid., 77
3 Ibid., 43
4 Carl B. Cone Torchbearer of Freedom: The Influence of Richard Price on Eighteenth Century Thought. (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2015), 11.
5 Ibid., 37
6 Ellen, White. Healthful living. (New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2016), 3.
7 Ibid., 76
8 Denis, Fortin and Moon, Jerry. The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia. 1st ed. (New York: Review and Herald Publishing, 2014), 413.
9 Ellen, White. Healthful living. (New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2016), 57.
10 Denis, Fortin and Moon, Jerry. The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia. 1st ed. (New York: Review and Herald Publishing, 2014), 435.
11 Ellen, White. Healthful living. (New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2016), 43.
13 White, G., Ellen. A Call to Stand Apart: Challenging Young Adults to Make an Eternal Difference (Selections from the Writings of Ellen G. White) Paperback, 2002, p. 86
14 Ibid., 88
15 O`Neil, George Urquhart. Crisis and Emergency Management and Preparedness for the African-American Church Community: Biblical Application from a Theological Perspective. 2014.