Arttherapy is a kind of psychotherapy entailing the reinforcement offree self-expression via drawing, modeling, or painting, utilized asa curative practice or support to diagnosis. The practice originatedfrom the field of psychotherapy and art and tends to differ in termsof definition. For instance, it may be based on creative art-makingprocedure or analysis of expression obtained via the exchanges ofpatient-therapist interactions. The psychoanalytic model was amongthe earliest types of art psychotherapy. It uses the transferenceprocedures between the client and therapist who constitute the art.The contemporary art therapy includes cognitive, person-centered,behavioral, Adlerian, narrative, Gestalt, and family among others. Assuch, this paper will compare two art therapy pioneers and theirworks. The comparison will help in comprehending their contributionto art therapy. The paper will also dwell in the methods and conceptsutilized by these pioneers.
Oneof the most renowned art therapists is Edith Kramer. She was amongthe earliest pioneers in the art therapy field. She is alsoaccredited with the concept that the art practice is indeed the“healing” aspect in effective art treatment. Nevertheless, thismodest description does not sufficiently elucidate her involvement inthis respect. Kramer also supposed that the personal in art treatmentprofited from satisfaction in the result of the end art product [ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].Thisglobal view on the vitality of the art appearance resulted in thefull clarity of the idea that came to be regarded as “ArtTherapist’s Third Hand [ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].”Thisthird-hand idea entails the therapist’s aptitude to facilitate anindividual’s artistic procedure like strategically assistingpersonal mix paints for an anticipated color. Also, it can includeinterventions on critical moments in art making. According to Kramer,the “third hand” typifies the contemporary relationalneurobiology patterns of empathy and attunement [ CITATION Cat14 l 1033 ].
Anotherpioneer of this concept is Margaret Naumburg. She was a 20th-centurypsychologist who played a significant role in the establishment ofart therapy by developing a model known as dynamically oriented arttherapy. Born in New York, Margaret Naumburg was educated at BarnardCollege. After finishing her undergraduate`s study, she pursuedeconomics at the London School as well as the Columbia University. Asa scholar, she concentrated in music, child education, and speechtherapy. After coming back to the U.S., she instigated the firstMontessori class in New York City. She later founded her schoolregarded as the Walden School [ CITATION Jun11 l 1033 ].
Inthe creation of art therapy, different views have erupted regardingthe approaches therapists ought to take while dealing with a patient.The two differentiating concepts involve Art as Psychotherapy and Artas Therapy. As such, the debate has been rife on the most beneficialtheory that describes the meaning of art therapy. So as to comprehendthe concepts, it is vital to review the ideologies of each assertion.It is also mandatory to compare and contrast the approaches utilizedfor each therapeutic technique like communication with the client andhow the concepts work in each case. It is also vital to establish theefforts at incorporating each philosophy into a sound technique ofenthusiastic art therapy. Margaret Naumburg and Edith Kramerpropelled the two theories while striving to elucidate on the conceptof art [ CITATION Kim11 l 1033 ].
MargaretNaumburg is regarded as the first individual to integrate art therapypsychoanalytic theory in the U.S. The psychoanalytic model, as wellas the mechanism of psychotherapy, was established by Sigmund Freud.It entails some ideologies like functions of id, superego, and ego.It also entails the internal visceral drives as well as the means bywhich the defense instruments are utilized. Naumburg was primarilyinfluenced by Sullivan and Jungian theories. Nonetheless, for clarityand evaluation to Art as Therapy, Freudian effects were crucial [ CITATION Tob11 l 1033 ].
AlthoughNaumburg does not identify the impacts emanating from otherpsychology fields, Art Psychotherapy is regarded by Naumburg as avital and deserving field. Her approach was termed as DynamicallyOriented that was founded on the Freudian theory. Thedynamically oriented method was her chief input to the art therapysociety. This method encourages “the issue of impulsive images"from the patient via the signs and free connotation of therepresentations. Naumburg perceived as a unique kind ofpsychotherapy [ CITATION Tob11 l 1033 ].
Maxine(2011) illustrates one of Naumburg’s works i.e. “The Handbook of,” Naumburg affirms: “The course of art therapy isfounded on the acknowledgment that human’s most important views,consequent from the comatose, reach manifestation in pictures ratherthan words.” As such, to attain this objective, artpsychotherapists utilize a Freudian mechanism referred to as freeassociation. This concept can be described as peaking freely onwhatever thoughts that may arise, without censoring, particularly theones offered by a particular stimulus. As for Art Psychotherapy,instead of speaking what comes in mind, the patient uses an artisticchannel to create what comes into mind. Naumburg put an emphasis onthe vitality of free association art therapy [ CITATION Jun11 l 1033 ].
Asportrayed in most of Naumburg’s works, the primary concern of ArtPsychotherapy is to convey the unconscious struggles to the surface.Eventually, it would result in clients’ cognizance to the verbalconflicts. In other words, the unconscious views, as well as innermotives, start to surface via the approaches of free association andthe transfer. In most instances, the unconscious views show in thepatient’s artwork. Ultimately, the patient is able to deliberate onthe approaches and the cognizant verbal consciousness. In thistechnique, the artistic value of the creation made by individuals isnot regarded as a significant portion of the healing process. Thegrowth of Art Psychotherapy led to the emergence of other artists andeducators striving to elucidate on the same [ CITATION Cat14 l 1033 ].
Accordingto Naumburg, the only valid explanation of an individual’s workemanates from the developer. In other words, only the person involvedin creating the art has the best interpretation of the same. In thatregard, the other interpretations are bound to differ. As illustratedby most of her artworks, she disliked routine art since itdiscouraged creativity [ CITATION Cat14 l 1033 ].
Naumburgused scribble drawing as his choice. She utilized large sheets ofpaper. She would then permit the client to move his/her selectedpaint, chalk pastel, or material, around the page until content butrequested that the material used not to be raised from the page frombeginning to the end. After the sketch is generated the client isthen permitted to look at it and attempt to develop another kind fromscribble. The patient should move the page all around until a pictureis found. Then, he/she is asked to color the image found [ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].
Atthis juncture, the client is encouraged to share what is entailed inthe work of art. The mechanism can also be achieved with the eyesclosed. By closing the eyes, the developer is encouraged to becomeless affected by force hence, form smooth lines. Using thenon-dominant hand is another criterion of utilizing this mechanism.In this case, the developer uses another portion of the brain,thereby freeing the unconscious mind to create the figurative imagesnecessary to access more awareness of the self. Scribble drawingproved to be one of the most successful approaches in freeing theunconscious imagery [ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].
Approximatelyten years after Naumburg’s development of the Art Psychotherapytechnique, the concept of Art as Therapy started to emerge withsignificant assistance from Edith Kramer. Art as Therapy entailsutilizing art as a way of therapeutic cure. For example, Kramerstates that the main objective of the art therapist is to avail theconcerned individuals and the satisfactions and pleasures that areembodied in creative works [ CITATION Tob11 l 1033 ].
Assuch, art therapist ought to cooperate with the individuals andcommunity to rightly attain the prospected goals. As affirmed inTobin (2011), Kramer went on to affirm that, “Patients are notcured individually, but in groups, and their art practice and goodsare an essential part of the healing environment.” In that respect,Art therapy is seen as a learning process that assists the patient togrow. The concept is also founded on the Freudian theory, withsubstantial thoughtfulness concentrated on sublimation. Nevertheless,distinct from Art Psychotherapy, is regarded as acomplement to other healing procedures like psychoanalysis [ CITATION Tob11 l 1033 ].
Oneof the aspects that distinguish Art Psychotherapy and Art as aTherapy is the extent by which emphasis is put on the artistic valueof the work of art developed by the patients. More emphasis is put onArt as Therapy than in Psychotherapy regarding the aesthetic value.In , the greater the artwork, the higher the chances ofsublimation. As such, Kramer is acknowledged for prompting the besteffective probable art, in the sense of healing improvements foryoung patients. Even though the artwork quality is vital in ArtTherapy, the aspect that is emphasized most is sublimation inpatients [ CITATION Cat14 l 1033 ].
Kramerparticularly believed in the notion of sublimation. The Freudianphilosophy described sublimation as the procedure in which primevalimpulses originating from the id are converted into socially creativepractices that result in the fulfillment of the novel urge. Kramer`steaching was in art, psychoanalytically cognizant psychoanalysis andart education. Kramer thought sublimation was the most significantobjective of therapy. Via art, she supposed, destructive and negativeurges, as well as emotions, are altered into valuable goods. Kramerdeclared that the realization of the therapy could be graded by thepictorial product [ CITATION Mic13 l 1033 ].
Kramer’sideologies on sublimation played a significant role in thequalitative worth of the artwork. An established sublimationdisplaying both the scuffle of ego and id as well as a mixture ofcontent and form would be appealingly sustaining and a pointer of egogrowth. However, critics such as Wadeson supposed that the stress onsublimation as entailed in Kramer’s work restrained the aim ofrelation in the creation of art in therapy [ CITATION Jun11 l 1033 ].
Inanother approach, Kramer instigated the mechanism known as the ArtTherapist third-hand intervention. This ideology emphasized on theflexibility of the art psychoanalyst. It can be regarded as theability of the psychoanalyst to enable the artistic process toprosper. For example, people could be assisted to integrate paints toobtain a prospected color or artwork. According to Kramer, it wasimportant to let to be based on humanities rather thanpsychology. As such, it would let the clients exercise theirappropriate gratifications. Furthermore, art as therapy would act asa supplement to the psychotherapy approaches rather than theirreplacements [ CITATION Kim11 l 1033 ].
Inthe line of duty, Kramer kept a studio whereby she etched, sculpted,and painted. According to her, art was meant to be an individualexperience reflective of the environment surrounding the artist. Sheregularly portrayed tangible, physical objects like herself, otherpersons, cityscapes, and landscapes. She favored painting withanimated colors. Kramer also claimed that art therapists ought to beunique to withstand the “exhausting clinical work [ CITATION Tob11 l 1033 ].”
AlthoughKramer and Margaret Naumburg, who are regarded as the pioneers ofAmerican art therapy, had the same goals i.e. integrating psychologyand art, they had varying beliefs. While Kramer emphasized on art asa therapy, Naumburg championed art in therapy. One of the core valueentailed in Art Psychotherapy propelled by Naumburg surroundstransference. This term is founded on the Freudian philosophy and canbe described as the conveying of emotion that was typically firstexperienced during the childhood or infancy periods and into a novelcircumstance that has a close relation to another human [ CITATION Kim11 l 1033 ].
Inthe instance of art therapy, the patient, and the counselor developclose relations. In that regard, the patient transfers the unsettledstruggles (commonly stemming from his/her association with theparents) on the art psychoanalyst. This procedure is regarded as asignificant aspect by most psychoanalysts since the patient revisitsand attempts to face the encounters that happened previously in life.Furthermore, the transference association between the patient and thetherapist is considered to be unavoidable and therapeutic.Nonetheless, counselors who support consider thattransference can essentially deter and even delay the therapeuticcourse [ CITATION Tob11 l 1033 ].
Artas Psychotherapy and Art Psychotherapy have certain similarities. Forexample, both are founded on the Freudian`s concept of therapy, andthey highlight the significance of art. Their emphasis is predominantthan all the other conventional psychology theories. Nevertheless,the two techniques also vary in several means. One instance is thestress on the artistic quality. Both mechanisms put varying emphasison the same [ CITATION Cat14 l 1033 ].
Artas Therapy emphasizes on the healing abilities of sublimation. On thecontrary, Art psychotherapy stresses the transference relationship.Even though the mechanisms are utilized often by most of thepsychotherapists, there are other numerous techniques that counselorshave to familiarize to be comfy in this field. The utmost concernshould be the patient’s needs. As such, if the therapist serves apatient utilizing the most creative and enthusiastic approach, thechoice is correct [ CITATION Jun11 l 1033 ].
Inconclusion, with this conceptual change, Kramer merged the courseaway from psychotherapy and in the direction of an alternate,strength-based technique to therapy. She favored sublimation over theother notions that had been founded including verbalization andtransference. Naumburg, her forerunner, did not divide thepsychotherapy in this manner but somewhat strived to improvetransference and verbalization via symbolic communication.Irrespective of this change, Kramer and Naumburg are both fundamentalfigures in the art therapy history based on the impact of Freud.
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