Running header: Application of Henderson’s needs theory in nursing 1
Applicationof Henderson’s needs theory in nursing
Applicationof Henderson’s needs theory in nursing
Theoriesare defined as organised and coherent articulation of statements thatsignificantly relate to questions that are raised within adiscipline. This is thus the presentation of certain concretepropositions and concepts within a given field. Theories are used tocreate new knowledge and verify existing ones. In developing atheory, scholars use assumptions that are based on concepts andstatements that are connected with individuals, situations or event[ CITATION Gra04 l 1033 ].Every scientific discipline has its own philosophies that are used todefine and characterise the profession from others. Nursing theory isa creative structure of ideas that are applied in the field to guidethe profession.
Graneheim& Lundman (2004) suggest that thetheories form a coherent group of propositions used to explain theprinciples that define the field of nursing. This means that theyintroduce an action based model that is applied by practitioners toensure the field meets its objectives. Therefore nurses apply nursingtheory based on the theoretical works of scholars within the fieldwho have advanced conceptual frameworks on how to approach the field. This means that nursing theory is based on abstract and generalknowledge that is concerned with specific aspects that describe,explain and prevent phenomena that nursing is concerned with.Theories within this field are classified according to function,validity and origin. They therefore, differ depending and thearguments that are presented by the author. This essay seeks to applythe propositions of Virginia Henderson’s needs theory by examiningthe importance of theories in nursing and application of the theoryin the field of nursing.
Importanceof nursing theory
Nursingtheories present a reflection plan for the practitioner that guidesthe direction that can be taken when giving care. Theories define theprofession of nursing and elaborate the role that the nurse plays inthe field of health. Different theories have been advanced topropose principles that can be applied within the field to achieveuniformity in practise. Zamanzadeh,Valizadeh, Tabrizi, Behshid, & Lotfi (2015) suggest that ssincenew situations keep arising the theories provide a framework for thepractitioner to investigate and make decisions that are consistentwith previous judgements. The general knowledge that is presented bythe theory forms the basis of the practise by defining what isrequired by nurses. Henderson, for example,, is regarded as theteacher of nurses since the scope of nursing was defined by the typeof work did she did during her career. The theory therefore guidesnurses to ensure that they remain indebted and faithful to functionalroles and professional boundaries.
Onthe other hand the theories provide a structure for communicationbetween the practitioner and the patient. It has to be recognisedthat patients must take the sick role to facilitate the healingprocess. Where the patient has not taken the sick role,administration of care becomes difficult, and thus the nurse has tostick to the requirements of the field(Tuale 2013).Patient situations and experiences vary depending on the state of thepatient, but the professional must accommodate all the situationsthat the patient is in.
Nursingtheories further, define the contribution that the profession has tothe care of patients. This means that the arguments presented in thetheories form the basis on which nursing theory is defined and thusforms a way. The rise of nursing scholars led to the developmentsthat are seen today in the field of nursing. For example, Hendersonbelieved in jurisprudence of nursing and further, pushed for nationalnursing organisations to enact legislations that controlled thetraining, preparation and licensing of nurses to ensure safe andcompetent professionals( Hao, Kumar, Jian, & Kao, 2013).Theories, therefore, have helped in the definition of the scope ofnursing and the role that nurses play in the society. This is seen inacts that have defined the scope of nursing and the nursing process. Since nursing like any other professions may be affected by differentsocio-political phenomena and thus force the profession to evolveaccording to the prevailing circumstances, having a defined theoryensures that the profession is protected.
of Henderson’s nursing theory
VirginiaHenderson’s theory came into existence at the time when the needsof the patient were the primary concern. According to her, patient’sindependence is the basis of recovery and thus it should be increasedto make the patient recover fast and return home. Halloran(2016) argues that Hendersondefined nursing as the process of assisting the sick in performinghealth-related activities that contribute to quick recovery orpeaceful death. Therefore nursing is defined as focussing onassisting the individual to perform health-related activities. Thetheory suggests that nurses play their roles about physicians,patients and other health care staff. This makes nurses substitutesto patients by helping patients gain independence. In defining therole that the nurse plays, Henderson proposed fourteen components ofbasic nursing and care that are based on human needs. The componentsdefine the nurse as the eyes of the blind or the consciousness ofunconscious meaning that the nurse is the link between the patientand the health care provider.
Schulz,Santana, Faleiro, & Gonçalves (2013) suggest that fourMeta paradigms of person, environment, health and nursing wereproposed to enable understanding of the nursing profession. Theperson means the individual that the nurse interacts with in ahealthcare setting. Therefore the mind and the body and thus theindividual seeking health assistance, needs health assistance andindependence. Therefore the fourteen basic principles are formedbased on the basic needs of people. The environment is any placewhere the patient and the nurse interact. Sick people lack theability to control their environment making it the duty of thepatient to manage the environment surrounding the patient. Forexample, in rehab settings, the environment plays an important rolein the healing process of the patient and thus the environmentalpress model is used in determining how the physical environmentinteracts with the patient. According to Schulzet al (2013) hhealthis viewed as a continuum and a quality of life that is basic need foreverybody. Henderson suggests that the nurse plays an important rolein the promotion of health by applying the fourteen basic principles.On the other hand nursing paradigm is based on the application ofassessment, nursing diagnosis, intervention and care planning.Therefore the relationship formed between the nurse and the patientis the basis for quick recovery by working other professionals withinhealth care
Applicationof Henderson’s nursing theory to nursing practice
Henderson’snursing theory has been widely applied in the field of nursing bypractising nurses within the field. In applying the theory nurses canimprove the situation of the patient by ensuring that the patientscan gain an independent state by applying four basic steps that havebeen proposed by the author[ CITATION BOf12 l 1033 ].The philosophy applied in nursing is based on different assumptionsthat professionals within the field hold.
Stepone involves assessment of the patient the patient to determine thesituation that the patient is in. the nurse meets the patient as astranger and thus starts by reducing anxiety that the patient mayhave by providing an accepting environment that makes the patientfree to open up. The patient, therefore, seeks assistance afteraccepting that they are missing a certain need in the fourteenprinciples defined by Henderson. In assessing the patient’ssituation the nurse uses the fourteen fundamental principles andneeds to determine what the patient is lacking[ CITATION Cow12 l 1033 ].The nurse should use the principles to judge the patients situationand determine which need is missing to know the best course ofaction.
Steptwo involves diagnosis where the nurse compares the data andknowledge within his/her disposal for health and the disease that thepatient may have. The nurse deeps Further, into the problem byinvolving the patient in determining the best health care that can beprovided through interviewing the patient and exploring theunderlying problem. This means that the nurse seeks answers to thefactors that contribute to healthcare. When diagnosing patientsituations, primary data or patient’s history determines theimplementation plan. For example, some patients may be having arecurring problem, while others may not be responding to certainmedication and thus the need to change the medication that wasinitially prescribed.
Stepthree involves planning where the nurse prepares a plan that will beput in place to meet the missing needs of the patient. Here the nursedefines the problem that the patient has and tries to establish thetype of service required by the patient. Different patients presentdifferent situations and thus after exploration of the patient, thenurse is able to determine the best course of healthcare that can beapplied to the patient’s situation[ CITATION Hal16 l 1033 ].Here the nurse sets goals on how to meet the needs of the patients.When planning for the patient, the nurse handles each patient’ssituation differently and not similarly. For example,, problemsolving may be applied in treatment situations where the patient hasdifferent allergies to certain drug types while behaviouralsensitization may be applied drug addicted patients.
Stepfour is the implementation of the proposed health care by answeringto the factors that contribute to the situation of the patient. Thenurse plays the role of assisting the sick to recover or maintaintheir health. Tuale(2013) suggests that thepatient is assisted in performing activities that meet the basicneeds to recover from health or attain a peaceful death. Whenimplementation the healthcare plan, the nurse ensures that thepatient actively participates. In the situation where the environmentand the participation of other third parties are required like inrehab, the environment has to be tailored to suit the needs of thepatient. In other situations like therapy, the implementation shouldbe patient initiated where the patient gives suggestions that mayassist the practitioner in determining the best course of action.
Thelast step involves evaluation where the nurse appraises the patientto determine if the goals have been met or not. When the patientimplements the health care plan, there are mutually expected outcomesthat the nurse expects as a result of effective implementation of theprocess. For example, in rehabilitation, the behaviour of the patientis supposed to change drastically while withdrawal symptoms aresupposed to be noticed(Hao, Kumar, Jian, & Kao, 2013).On the other hand in normal treatment situations, in the case wherethe patient feels pain and is undergoing therapy, there should bereduced pain or improved body state as therapy continues.
Despitethe fact that there are different theories within the field ofnursing, each theory presents different assumptions that shape theway the field of nursing is determined. Nurses apply different fromthe theories that they have covered in class to determine the besthealthcare decision that they can take to meet the needs of thepatient. Henderson’s nursing theory has influenced the field ofnursing by shaping a central focus based on human needs using thefourteen principles of nursing. In applying the theory the nurseanalyses the situation of the patient and determines the need thatmay be missing from the patient [ CITATION Cow12 l 1033 ].This theory has shaped the scope of nursing where the ideas thatHenderson advocated for are being used today. The ideas she presentedin her arguments have determined how the nursing profession ismanaged. However, the theory lacks a conceptual linkage between humancharacteristics and the physiological needs that are defined by thefourteen principles. This makes the theory miss interrelated factorsthat may influence the profession. Despite the weaknesses, the theoryforms the basis of nursing and has shaped the way nursing ispractised all over the world which led to calling her the “Teacherof Nurses”.
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