AnnotatedBibliography on Three Sources
Baker &Pifer (2011) Thr role of relationships in the transition fromdoctoral student to independent scholar Studies in ContinuingEducation Vol 33, No 1
Pifer and Baker aimed to research the how a doctoral studenttransitions to independence after school. Doctoral education is quiteextensive as it is conducted under supervision and guidance of thelecturers. According Pifer and Baker, an individual has to performnumerous tasks while undertaking a doctoral, such writing of adissertation, doing coursework and passing exams. Doctoral educationredefined an individual’s identity as it equips one with skillsregarding research and teaching competence. Consequently, conductingindependent activities becomes challenging. The researchers basedtheir work on theoretic framework. Pifer and Baker realized limitedresearch exist that explain how doctoral students develop theiridentities after school. After education, a doctoral student becomesself-directed and in most of the times isolated and independent. Itbecomes difficult to make viable decisions and one can lose hisidentify by trying to establish himself/herself independently. Thouinsight and vast knowledge acquired in college is vital, doctoralstudents require guidance to prepare them mentally on how toestablish themselves independently. One interacts with new friendsand cultural members who hold varied perspectives. Since one spentseveral years in school, one is expected to display prosperity withinminimal duration. Pifer and Baker interviewed 31 doctoral studentssome of whom were undertaking higher education and others who hadcurrently finalized their education. The research was well-balancedin terms of both gender and demographics. It involved 14 females and17 males. In addition, it comprised one African American, one Asian,two Indians, three Asians and 18 native Americans. 6 student wereinternational doctoral students. As a results, the research includedchallenges that are faced by the minority groups while striving toestablish their identities.
The research never deviated from the main objective. The researchasked relevant questions during interview, which comprised thecurrent support the students were receiving, their goals, keyexperiences, their current identity and relationship both at schooland in the community. Pifer and Baker gave a comprehensive discussionon how transition awareness, impression management, collaboration andnetworking works for the benefit of doctoral students. Throughcollaboration and networking, doctoral students are motivated tocontinued developing their identities.
Pifer and Baker research is reliable to both students who areconducting research and doctoral students who are completing theireducation. It gives a detail background on how to develop identitysuccessfully before and after education.
Gardner(2009) Conceptualuzing Success in Doctoral Education:Perspectives ofFaculty in Seven Disciplines The Review of Higher Education Vol 32,No 3
Gardner Susan researched key factors that contribute to the successof doctoral students. According to the previous researches, only 50%of individuals who enrolled for doctoral programs finalized theireducation. In addition, only an insignificant numbers are able todisplay remarkable success after they complete education. Gardnerconducted an interview comprising 38 individuals to in oneinstitution. She targeted disciplines that had the lowest numbers ofindividuals completing their education such as computer engineering,mathematics, English, Oceanography and Psychology. Gardner gavereliable results on her results. She represented the results in atabular manner to enable one grasp the information easily. Theresults indicated completion of doctoral education depended ondepartment interaction, and the type of subject undertaken.
Gardner’s research is organized using all elements of a reliableresearch. She derived a lot of information from the previousresearches done. Consequently, the information she discusses iscredible and can be applied on high education institutions to solvethe current problems in technical subjects. As she illustrated,technical subjected relied how best the lecturers interacted with thestudent’s and techniques used in to convey knowledge. Additionally,the research can be used to conduct further research and develop aframework for aiding doctoral students.
Smith &Hatmaker (2014) Knowing, Doing, and Becoming: Professional IdentityConstruction Among Public Affairs Doctoral Students Journalof Public Affairs Education Vol 20, No 4.
Smith and Hatmaker investigated how doctoral student acquiredresearch skills. The research based on professional identity andsocialization of doctoral students while conducting their research.Smith and Hatmaker analyzed the level of organization among thedoctoral students, tactics utilized and relational level during theirresearch. According to their research, by interacting with theirrespective departments, doctoral students are able to sharpen theirskills. They are able to gain insight for proactivity development,which is essential in the field of research. Smith and Hatmakerconducted a research on 27 individuals who were undertaking publicaffair doctorate. The research involved 25 university in 6 countries.Key subjects targeted include political science, publicadministration, policy and public management.
The researchers focused on their topic of research without deviation.Their utilized various previous research to streamlined their works.As a result, they were able to develop a masterpiece that can be usedby current doctoral students undertaking similar courses globally. Smith and Hatmaker research is credible as it focused on variedcountries. The research was able to incorporate various factors indeveloping a conclusion. Student’s in difference countriesexperience various problems the affect their socialization andidentity such as the teaching methods used the lecturers and thenumbers of research conducted outside the school. The research laid acritical foundation for lecturers around the globe. Professors areable to devise methods that can be used to streamline master’sstudents and ensure they develop their personality easily afterschool.