5Essay Questions: Crime Analysis
5Essay Questions: Crime Analysis
Crimeanalysis is a profession and procedure that involves bothquantitative and qualitative approaches, which are applied by policeagencies and other institutions in analyzing reliable data(Ainsworth, 2013). On top of that, two methods of crime analysis havebeen recognized around the world as inductive and deductivetechniques. The two types are categorized based on various factorsthat include the nature and where data emanates, the approaches used,the outcomes obtained, and the regularity of the analysis (Ainsworth,2013). Indeed, “at the heart of most profiling is the belief thatthe characteristics of an offender can be deduced by a careful andconsidered examination of the characteristics of the offense(Ainsworth, 2013).” In this case, the categories of analysis helppolice agencies arrange products and plan timelines for thedissemination of data.
Theinductive method is the one used in reporting criminal behaviors,scenes of crime, and those affected by the actions. Most importantly,the approach involves thinking from the original statistical data andthe explicit criminal conduct. In other words, inductive profilingcan be termed as an empirical approach that achieves results from thescientific analysis. The process acquires general principles ofcriminals through examination and testing of particular facts ofrecorded cases (Ainsworth, 2013). The inductive model begins with thedevelopment of a theory, then followed by an analysis of theassumption before creating hypotheses from the crime scene data.
Agood example of the inductive approach can be that 80% of serialmurderers that confront college individuals in their institutions areidentified as white men aged between 20 and 35 years (Ainsworth,2013). The attackers also live with their mothers and travel using atypical model of cars. In this case, an identified attacker can besaid to have attacked at least three women in college on differentscenarios but in the parking spaces. All in all, by considering thisinformation, the inductive method can assist in concluding that theoffender is a part of a group known as serial killers and is, ofcourse, a white man between the ages of 20 and 35 years. Moreover, helives together with his mother and drives a common model of a car.
Contraryto the inductive approach of crime analysis, the deductive methodrelies on the truth of all the assumptions formed during a time whenan investigator first gets to the crime scene or when interviewingindividuals. In other words, it can be stated that the deductivemethod depends on any beliefs or statements derived from the initialpoints of interrogation (Ainsworth, 2013). The process engagesintensively the interpretation of any forensic evidence, such asscene photographs, offender victimology reports, and autopsyhighlights to enable accurate reconstruction of precise behavioralpatterns of a criminal.
Anillustration of deductive profiling would be where investigators findthe body of naked women in the middle of a forest having shallow andnotable incisions on her chest. Moreover, the genital areas aremissing and have notably been removed using a sharp object. There aretire impressions about 20 yards from the body. Conclusively, thelocation is a disposal site and the assassination could have occurredin a different place provided that no blood was noted at the scene.The offender is most likely to be a sexual sadist and an intelligentcriminal. The evidence is clear from the transfer of the body to thesecondary scene and that the person used a vehicle.
Crimeanalysts identify the patterns of offenders during an investigation,and it is for the police to react to the information. Consequently,the police give various responses regarding such patterns rangingfrom the removal of the offender by the use of apprehensionapproaches, giving the necessary custody through suppression, to theexclusion of victim through target hardening schemes. In this case,several responses can be noted from the police and one of them is therapid reaction where by realizing the existence of a criminalpattern, the police agencies can prioritize any approach that canlead to the catching of an offender. One of the priorities can be anycalls for actions that can result in the arrest of a criminal on ascene. The reaction is only possible under apprehension tactics wherepolice agencies find reasonable chances of noticing and arresting anoffender, especially after obtaining suspect description regardingprofiles or physical appearances (Ainsworth, 2013). The technique isalso suitable for series patterns, which involve one criminal or agroup.
Theother type of response that may be given by the police is plannedreaction where they can apply the already known data about acriminal’s series of events. In this case, they do so to catch theoffender after a crime has happened. A good example of such areaction would be where police can be allocated to Home Depot areasafter a thief snatches a purse from a lady. The event is afterrealizing that the offender can use the victim’s credit particularsin the purse. In this case, as soon as the next action by an offenderis reported, then the police can be dispatched to such areas to lookfor the suspect. In other words, the law enforcement agency has toinitially rely on any available information on past events involvinga suspect and apprehend such a person in case of subsequent reports.
Furthermore,there is the target hardening response that may be used by policeafter patterns have been identified through crime analysis. In such acase, the approach has been regarded as an entirely viable method,particularly when the victim or target of a crime can be accessibleor identifiable. In such a case, police agencies can visit placesthat are most likely to be affected by the offense patterns and giveprevention measures (Ainsworth, 2013). Moreover, potential targetscan be encouraged to mark their properties with serial numbers toenable easy identification. Additionally, the victim hardeningresponse can involve community organizations where police agenciesapply community policing tactics, such as neighborhood watches. Theprocess is meant to note any suspects and take caution in case of anyrandom events in an area.
Theprocess of examining the occurrences that lead to a problem by crimeanalysts can be categorized into three major stages, which includethe prelude, incident, and the aftermath. In fact, it is at the pointof problem identification that investigators or analysts realize thatnot all forms of analysis need statistical evidence (Ainsworth,2013). Therefore, it is vital that the analyst understands thehappenings and sequences as two diverse elements. In this case, it isimportant to look at the actions and patterns of offenders and thewider environment where the occurrences happen.
Thefirst stage is the prelude one that involves the procedures leadingto the problem behavior. In other words, it engages concepts that arelinked directly to the issue at hand including incidences likewaiting until a moment when an offender notices that no one iswatching or drinking alcohol. The collection of such evidence can bedone through open, closed, or classified sources. An open sourceentails any information about an offender that is known by thepublic. On the other hand, closed source involves informationgathered for particular purpose due to its constrained access to thepublic (Ainsworth, 2013). Classified source involves certain covertapproaches, such as human and technical means.
Thesecond stage in identifying a problem is the incident phase, whichinvolves the immediate occurrence or the problematic conduct. Some ofthe quoted examples can be breaking a window or snatching a pursefrom a vehicle. On that note, it is the prelude stage that leads tothe incident one. The main goal here should be to note the likelypossibilities for a certain problem with the aim of identifying theproblem-solving reactions to the most prominent events.
Thefinal stage is the aftermath that occurs after the incident phaseinvolving the offender responding to the immediate event. In thiscase, the criminal can flee the scene of a crime or use the creditcard he or she found in a purse. Most importantly, analysts shouldnote that other offenses can occur during the aftermath stage, suchas stealing a vehicle to escape (Ainsworth, 2013). On the whole, theevents leading to the issue ought to be similar to enable a commonprocess to be noticed in accomplishing the activity.
Aneffective example where the three stages can be used in problemidentification is one involving residential burglary. In the preludestage, the offenders can be noticed observing the neighborhood asthey prepare for the next step. In this case, their incident stagecan involve them getting inside the home violently and stealingitems. The aftermath stage will entail fencing the already stolenproperty or driving through the neighborhoods.
Acrime hot spot entails a group of related events that are done by oneor a team of people at scenes near to each other. Additionally,several methods can be used to identify such spots and in clusteringcrime occurrences. In fact, high crime scenes are easy to noticesince they have been used for several incidents (Ainsworth, 2013).The pattern of occurrence along with the duration should be studiedbefore declaring an area as a hot spot.
Oneof the procedures of declaring a place as a hot spot is by the use ofcrime maps. The maps can be used to answer complex analyticalquestions founded on crime assumptions and lead to effective policeactions. For instance, density maps indicate where illegal activitieshappen without segregating a map into blocks. In this cases, placesidentified as those with high crime incidences will stand out duringthis process.
Theother method involves the application of geographical informationsystems where there is a combination of street maps. The process alsobrings together the data concerning the crime and other features andpublic disorders. The resultant dimensional maps lead to a visualillustration of the hot spot areas (Ainsworth, 2013). On top of thatthe geographic information systems can then put every crime in a gridwith each labelled differently based on the number of incidents inthe area.
Theother technique is the use of statistical tests where analysts applysoftware to examine if a location regarded to be experiencing highnumber or illegal conducts is a crime hot spot. The approach alsoplays a role in determining if the clustering of the incidents can betermed as random happenings and not necessarily high crimeoccurrences (Ainsworth, 2013). One of the most used statisticalapproaches is the point pattern analysis where a point map showspatterns that seem clustered, similar, or random, which may be usedto identify their nature of distribution.
Seemingly,the most appropriate method of determining if an area is a hot spotamong the three would be the use of geographic information systems.The models are able to combine any street maps and any relevant datathat can help in reaching a conclusion about a place of crime. Mostimportantly, apart from the identification of an area as a hot spot,the geographic information systems can allow police agencies toconfirm trouble locations in a more accurate way. Additionally, theycan notice the precise nature of an occurrence within a hot spot andcreate effective strategies to react to a situation.
Crimeanalysts may decide to use the process of repeat victimization duringtheir activities to determine high crime areas. The approach happenswhen a similar category of crime occurrence is experienced by asingle target in a certain period. In other words, the processinvolves the use of original and the subsequent incidences of crime.A perfect example is where a person’s home may be robbed twicewithin a period of one year each event taking approximately 10minutes. In such a case, the two occurrences can be regarded asrepeats of the same criminal activity. The analysts can use theprocess of repeat victimization to provide insights into theunderlying behavioral patterns of any recurring criminal incidents.
Inan attempt to carry out repeat victimization, crime analysts usuallyreport the number of victims who are affected several times duringthe happenings of crime. Moreover, they calculate the percentage ofoffenses experienced by repeat targets. In most cases, repeatvictimization is notable in high crime scenes and targets in suchareas have no means of blocking these subsequent offenses (Ainsworth,2013). At the point of identification, the analysts determine thejuncture at which the investigative approach is repeat victimization.The options at this stage include the use of the crime managementunit or other aspects at the divisional level. The process ofrevictimization plays a huge role in the provision of advancementsolutions in victim services and enhancing data quality. In otherwords, it is a vital process that helps in prioritizing the creationand delivery of important services in crime prevention.
Furthermore,crime analysts have come up with a way of determining how repeatvictimization occurs and its relation with other patterns of illegalbehaviors. In this case, they use the revictimization process todetermine true repeat targets who are the same victims that wereoriginally affected by a subsequent crime. The victims can be fromthe same house and who have experienced burglary of a similar naturethree times a year. The analysts also identify near victims who arephysically close to the initial targets. For instance, any apartmentsnear the stolen houses can be containing similar items or have commonlayouts. The other identifiable type of victims during the process ofrepeat victimization includes the chronic ones (Ainsworth, 2013). Asthe name suggests, the targets suffer from a diverse classificationof victimization due to multiple incidents, such as local violence,burglary, and theft.
Ainsworth,P. (2013). Offenderprofiling crime analysis.London, UK: Willan.