12 of 12
EnglishProficiency Level: Elementary
Numberof Students: 60
Agegroup: 13 – 15 year-olds
Lengthof Lesson: 60 minutes
Goalof the Lesson:
To teach students how to use clauses of result when they make sentences.
To ensure that the students can solve basic questions related to clauses of result.
To help students learn vocabulary related to travel and adventure.
To help learners make appropriate conversation using clauses of result in travel-related vocabulary after understanding the meaning of it.
Thedemand for English lessons among Chinese migrants has been on therise the same way China`s presence on the global business stage has.More Chinese families are settling with their children in newcountries as they seek business opportunities or travel for leisure.Taking the long-term view, these immigrant families are keen to teachtheir children the language that is articulated by a majority ofpeople in the world second only to theirs. For my pedagogicalproject, I have chosen a class of 60 native Chinese speakers that arekeen to improve their English proficiency. Because these childrentravel a lot, the focus will be placed on more common forms oftraveling lexicon that they are likely to encounter in differentcountries across the globe. For this reason, the English they will betaught will take cognizance of the different forms taken especiallybetween English speakers in the United Kingdom, United States ofAmerica and Australia.
Forpeople who want to learn English, a great way to start is by learningabout places around the world because people like to talk about theircountries of origin and places they have been to (Council of Europe,2001 Hasibuan, Kalayo and Ansyari, 2009). The second reason whytravel and adventure are ideal is that for people who want topractice through holding conversations with native English speakers,a travel destination such as a museum, beach or park is an easy wayto find someone who is likely to afford time for a conversation. Toensure that the class gets a demonstration of most diverse vocabularyset in the little time allowable in the lesson I have invited mystudents to imagine they are taking part in a triathlon competitionin their home town and report. A triathlon is a competition thatinvolves three activities mostly a marathon, swimming and cycling.The competition allows the class to discuss different destination andthe travel activities in each destination chosen.
▪Listening:The Teacher will give instruction, and ask each of the 60 students toreadout common travel words that they had been instructed to researchon and use clauses of result.
▪Speaking:Drilling, practicing, and working in pairs
▪Writing:Individual worksheet and worksheet (1) for pairs
▪Reading:Charts, Individual worksheet, and work sheet1
▪ 1PDF file showing transport modes and terms (see Appendix 1)
▪ 60workbooks for the students
▪ 60Individual worksheets
▪ 30Work sheet1 – for each pair
▪Phonology:Teacher’s instruction, explanation, and classmates’ presentation
▪Function:Making a travel and adventure conversation
▪Discourse:Group talking and role play
Teachingmethodology: Presentation, Practice, and Production (PPP)
Thisis a teaching method that is divided into three phases as the namesuggests. The first phase involves the teacher taking charge of allteaching activities as learners only participate as receivers of thecontent. The practice phase allows for teachers to guide students insolving some problems that are similar to what the teacher may havecovered shortly. The production stage, on the other hand, is theability for learners to independently demonstrate what they have beentaught (Harmer, 2009 Kostoulas, 2015).
Asa method of teaching, PPP has proven to be effective especially forteachers who have less teaching experience (Nelson, Spence-Thomas andTaylor, 2015). The method is well structured and simple to follow.However, PPP has been criticized for being too mechanical.Furthermore, learners who do well in practice phase do not necessarycarry their competence to the production phase nor do those whomanage to do better at production phase carry own to perform betteroutside a classroom environment (Harmer, 2009 Kostoulas, 2015).
Itis assumed that our target students already know the following:
The definition of clauses of result
How the class is set up and run, and they pairs can be assigned randomly
All students possess English Elementary level proficiency (A2)
AnticipatedErrors and Solutions:
Thefirst problem emanates from students who may find themselvesgravitating towards the use of their first language terms fordiscussions in class.
Although this is not a negative aspect per se, the teacher is not proficient in Chinese and will thus rely mostly on gestures and pictures of items. Students will also be encouraged to carry out most of their conversations in the school environment in English. This increases avenues of learning especially peer-to-peer.
Secondly,students may confuse clauses of result when they carry out sentenceconstruction exercises.
To resolve such challenges I will use as many examples as time allows of the various sentence structures that demonstrate the clauses of result.
Thirdly,student may take longer to strike rapport before effectively workingtogether in pairs.
I will offer reassurances as well as ground rules for the paired exercises. The pairs are purely for academic purposes and therefore each pair should concentrate on how to function best as a team to deliver the best results.
Andfinally, at the production stage, students may also have a limitedvocabulary to express themselves on. This may cause the discussionabout the second activity to be longer than anticipated. The learnersmay also have limited ability in using the words correctly.
The teacher will write some common words that would have been used in the lesson on the whiteboard to act as a reminder. The examples used in substitution tables and other exercises will also be written in the workbooks by each learner to act as reminders.
Time:8mins Setup: whole class
▪Greetingthe class and welcoming them to the session.
▪ Showingpicture of a cities railway interchange system with taxis, buses, andbicycles. See Appendix 2.
▪ Promptstudents to start discussions about the picture and what they canrelate to
▪ Goodmorning class. How are you?
▪ Showthe picture of the Metro interchange system
Whatis this? It is a picture of a picture of the different modes oftransport. The Metro is a busy place. I have been to the metro withmy friends. We use the Metro so that we can arrive at school or workfaster. The words ‘so that` in the sentence refer to a clause ofresult. The result of using the Metro is to arrive at school or workfaster. Today we are going to study clauses of result.
Butbefore we start, we will start by knowing a little more informationabout a few volunteers in the class so when I ask a question, raiseyour hand, and I will choose you to give a quick response. Are theinstructions clear?
[Thisintroduction exercise will get a response only from six students or10 percent of the class. The rationale is the time available is notenough for everyone to give a response]
▪ Haveyou ever been to another country?
I have been to China.
▪ Ofcourse besides your country of origin and the United States ofAmerica.
I have been to Germany.
▪ Whydid you go to Germany
I went to Germany so that I could visit the Museum
▪ Andwho has been to Britain and why?
I enjoyed my visit to Britain such that I want to return on my next vacation.
The words ‘so that’ and ‘such that’ are examples of clauses
Time:12 minutes Set up: whole class Teacher Talk: Activity 1
Thepresentation phase the teacher chooses from a range of aides such asaudio tape, visual tape or text to demonstrate a situation (Nelson,Spence-Thomas and Taylor, 2015). The teacher may write sentences onthe board and explain the structure. The teacher may also employ theuse of substitution tables (Harmer, 2009 Kostoulas, 2015).
▪ Showingtwo visual demonstrations of definition and the clauses of resultusing a chart. The teacher provides some information to students tounderstand when clauses of result are used, and words that arerelated to clauses of result.
▪ FirstI explain clauses of result shortly.
Clausesof result are used to show consequence (Aziz, 2010). That is whathappens is a result of action in the main clause. The conjunctionsused include: sothat, such…that, in order thatand,so…that.
Theexamples are highlighted below.
•Hedrove so fast that he lost control of the car.
Thesentence can be rewritten in a different way as follows.
•Sofast did he drive that he lost control of the car.
Inthe two sentences, ‘how fast he drove` can be answered by theclause ‘that he lost control of the car. `So that clause ‘that helost control of the car’ was the adverb-clause of result.
<Concept Checking Questions >
What are you studying now?
What is the purpose of clauses of result?
2.Form & Drilling
▪Showing a chart with the substitution table below. The teacher willguide students to make correct sentences demonstrating the use ofclauses of result. To make the process more interactive, the teacherwill use an exercise of word ordering. In a case of errors, theteacher corrects the sentence and lets students listen, repeat, andmake correct order.
▪Next, we will construct simple sentences outlined in the substitutiontable below.
so that (clause of result)
may learn English
Ihave come so that I may learn English
*For this statement, don’t repeat. Only listen.
Ihave come so that I may learn English
Ihave come so that I may learn English
Ihave come so that I may learn English
▪In the next sentences, I would like you to listen to my statement andmake a sentence using the structure given above. I would like to askfor a group of 21 volunteers to each write down one word from thesubstitution table. I will assign number 1 to 21. Number 1 picks thefirst word ‘I,` number two picks the second ‘you` until number 21who will pick and write ‘English.` I will then read out a hint fora sentence, and the team will need move to the front of the class andorder themselves in line with words from the sentence. The rest ofthe learners will act as the audience and correct any mistakes butonly after allowing the volunteers enough time to order themselves.The class will also check for any spelling mistakes.
He has come so that he may learn English
▪Class is that correct?
You have come so that you may learn English
English is the reason I have come to learn.
▪I will ask some questions to you.
­They have come so that they may learn English.
She has come so that she may learn English.
We have come so that we may learn English.
<Assessment and Rationale >
Substitutionactivities serve to help the teacher guide students to articulatelanguage grammar correctly and develop fluency (Councilof Europe, 2001).The method is effective in progressing learners from known tounknown. A teacher needs to determine that the students articulatethe correct forms and if not they provide instant correction. Thismethod has been criticized for providing answers but not helpingstudents conceptualize what they are being taught (Afrin,2014 Agustini, 2014).The failure to grasp the concept reduces the ability of those beingtaught to retain the knowledge beyond the classroom environment.Teachers are therefore advised to take cognizance of this weakness inthe application of substitution tables as learning activities andsupplement them with other activities.
Time:10 minutes Setup: Individually Teacher Talk
<Controlled Practice >
Theteacher at this stage allows students to practice saying or writingthe words correctly using activities such as drills, multiple-choiceexercises, and gap-and-cue exercises (Council of Europe, 2001Nelson, Spence-Thomas and Taylor, 2015). The teacher at this stagereduces the role they play in class to aspects of the provision offeedback, giving guidance on correct forms and provision of generalfeedback to students (Harmer, 2009 Kostoulas, 2015).
▪ Givea worksheet to each student. Let students solve this exercise alone.They have about 10 minutes for the task.
▪ Usingthe substitution table above, construct as many sentences as you can.Remember that your sentence should meet all the grammaticalstandards. You have 10 minutes. Work alone.
<Concept Checking Questions >
How much time do you have?
Do you work it with your partner?
▪ Haveyou finished it? Then let us check the correct answers.
▪ Whatis the response to the first one? Good.
▪ Whatis the answer to the second? Good.
▪ Whatis the answer to the third? Good.
▪ Whatis the answer to the fourth? Good.
▪ Welldone. Congratulations.
<Activity 2 >
<Less Controlled Practice >
▪You will pair up to work on this task. Can you please find the personyou were partnered with as indicated in our last lesson? Great. Youwere required to gather some information about your favoritedestination and assume that you are in a triathlon competition atthat place. Please discuss with your partner and write down thedifferent travel words that are likely to be used at each stage. Thetriathlon is composed of running, cycling and swimming. As a hint,you are to cover aspects of the competition that include the supportoperations such as ambulances, air command, and water commandservices.
▪Each of you has chosen a place they want to demonstrate how triathlonon. For example the Shanghai triathlon competition. You will presentwhat you have written about that triathlon in Shanghai as yourpartner listens for about 5 minutes. After that, your partner willmake their presentation as you listen. You will make a dialog usingclauses of result with your partner. Your dialogue should be on thesubject of travel within a town that is hosting a triathlon event sotake you colleague on a trip to your favorite destination. You canshow your partner the picture or any other materials you had beenasked to collect about that destination.
<Concept Checking Questions >
So how much time do you have?
Did we say you work alone?
When you make a dialog, what grammar will you use?
▪ Pleasepair up with someone seated next to you this time round. Everyone ispresent so that should be 30 pairs. Let’s do the work.
Time:10 minutes Setup: Group, Whole classTeacher Talk
<Production- Free Practice >
Theproduction phase of learning is very important because it determineswhether the activity taught will candidly demonstrate what thelearners have been able to grasp (Kostoulas,2015).Production can be either oral or written using the language structurethey have learned and could either be done as an individual, pair orgroup exercise. Production can be done through oral presentations,and dialogues that involve sentences, paragraphs or more voluminouscontent. There is still need for correction of the exercises andprovision of feedback after the exercise is finished. Unlike inpractice where there is insistence for only one correct answer, inproduction the demand for accuracy is relaxed, and instead, emphasisis placed on the ability of learners to speak fluently (Council ofEurope, 2001 Hasibuan, Kalayo, and Ansyari, 2009).
▪ Inthe following exercise, you will do role plays in groups of sixpeople making ten groups in total. Take turns for each of you to makepresentations in the group regarding the key travel words learned inthe triathlon exercise. Remember to also use the clauses so that,such…that, in order thatand,so…that to make a sentence out of the words.
▪ Thefollowing sentences have been provided for purposes of demonstration:
He got such a serious injury in the race that he had to be airlifted to the hospital.
He ran very faster than every other participant, so he won the triathlon race.
He flew in early Monday morning, so he was too tired to join the race.
The planning committee put every detail in order that for the first time there was no traffic near the venue of the competition.
▪ Areyou all settled in your groups?
▪Good. Let’s practice it with your group members.
▪Write down your sentences in the workbooks that have been provided.
Walkaround the hall to see the practice sessions by sampled groups
1Please practice it. Great.
2Please practice it. Good.
….10. Please practice it. Excellent.
Thiswill be the only assessed exercise of the day. Learners will beawarded grades from A, B, C or D based on the number and accuracy ofsentences that articulate the grammar (clauses of result included)and travel lexicon. In the grading system, A stands for Distinctionwhich reflects an excellent performance represented by at least eightout of ten correct sentences. B is a Merit award that reflects a goodperformance of between six and seven correct sentences. C for a Passfor satisfactory performance represented by four to five sentencesand D for Fail or an unsatisfactory performance with less than fourcorrect sentences.
Todaywe talked about clauses of result and how they can be applied in atravel conversation. We have learned that the phrases ‘sothat, such…that, in order thatand,so…that’ represent clauses of result. Wehave also learned about words relating to travel that can be used ina triathlon. I hope you will remember these words and try to applythem to your day to day conversations. Specialthanks to all of you for participating. Have a good day. See you nextweek. Bye.
Afrin, S. (2014) Teaching Approaches and Methods in English as aSecond Language Classrooms in Dhaka. A Comparative Study betweenBangla Medium Schools and English. BRAC University. Available at:http://dspace.bracu.ac.bd/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10361/3311/08163003.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
Agustini, N. M. I. (2014) Improving speaking outcomes throughthink pair reflection of the eighth-grade students in academic year2013/2014. Mahasaraswati Denpasar University. Available at:http://unmas-library.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/THESIS-FIX.pdf.
Aziz, A. (2010) ‘Adverb clauses of result and concession.` Doha:North Star, pp. 4–7. Available at:http://www.kau.edu.sa/Files/0053506/Files/62527_Level5_grammar4_Adverb.pdf.
Council of Europe (2001) ‘the Common European Framework ofReference for Languages : Learning, Teaching, Assessment,` Councilof Europe, pp. 1–273. doi: 10.1017/S0267190514000221.
Hasibuan, Kalayo and Ansyari, M. F. (2009) Teaching English as aForeign language. West Sussex.
Harmer, J. 2009. ThePractice of Teaching English Language (4thedn). Harlow: Longman. pp. 64
Nelson, R., Spence-Thomas, K. and Taylor, C. (2015) What makesgreat pedagogy and great professional development : final report.London. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications.