Globalisation And Wine Tourism 3
GLOBALISATIONAND WINE TOURISM
Globalisationand Wine Tourism
Foodconsumption is an outcome of varying contextual social norms, whichare relentlessly evolving. Globalisation has led to significant andirreversible changes in human society such as the manner of it“obligatory purpose and social class determinant” (Osmanet al. 2014: 239).Primarily, this report will provide a discussion of homogenisationand heterogenisation as aspects of globalisation comparative to theconsumption of food and wine. Secondly, a critical argument on thehistory of wine production in old or new worlds and its rise as asignificant gastronomic product, will be presented. Lastly, the paperwill explain the development of wine tourism in the contemporarysociety. In this regards, the discourse compares the commondiscernment of globalisation as a threat to wine identities withother facets by elucidating the key dimensions in tourism and theimpact of internalisation on consumption.
Thecultural outcomes of globalisation have become an argumentativeaspect irrespective of whether it causes cultural multiplicity andparticularism or cultural standardisation. However, the implicationof internalisation on wine supply and consumption is not a newoccurrence, but one that has seen numerous waves of change (Maket al. 2012, Osman et al. 2014).Today, with the rapid industrial progression, contemporaryglobalisation has affected food structures across the world in anunparalleled manner thus, it has indeed led to far-reaching culturalrepercussions. People usually interpret the homogenising force ofinternalisation as a danger to the authenticity of wine (Ritzer1996).Nonetheless, it is critical to point out that legitimacy has longbeen an antagonistic issue in tourism since food cultures are notalways static, but they recurrently develop and adjust in reaction todiverse incentives. Thus, it is often impossible to delineateauthenticity in wine cultures (Hassiand Storti 2012).The main concern being whether it translates to universal culturalconformity or it allows for cultural diversity and particularism.Globalisation has led to situations where cultures have beenirreversibly transformed through upward income mobility, urbanisationand market liberalisation (Ritzer1996: 105).Developed countries have enabled for such trends via foreign directinvestments especially in liberalised economies allowing forsignificant alterations in contemporary food consumption ideals andfood systems. Large organisations like McDonald`s have investedheavily in the international food supply market leading tostandardised food consumption trends. Therefore, globalisation hashomogenised food consumption.
Somescholars point out that globalisation does not translate to thehomogenisation of human societies and cultures but has ratherresulted in heterogeneity (Castañoet al. 2014).Heterogeneity is construed to imply network arrangements determinedby deep-rooted cultural dimensions (Carroll2009).As such, human cultures tend to continuously experience reinventionsand transformations buoyed by forces and factors associated withglobalisation. Human cultures will more often than not progress intoheterogeneous units based on variation in demand as dictated by theimmediate environment (Hassiand Storti 2012).Extraneous cultural ideals, consequently, tend to remain on theborderline national or local cultures leading to coexistence of localand global human societies in relation to food consumption.
AnAnalogy of Wine
Ancienthuman societies favoured wine over water as it was considerednutritious, safer and with commendable psychotropic effects. Wine isbelieved to have originated from the Mediterranean, among the Greeksand passed on to Europe via the exploits of the Roman Empire (Castañoet al. 2014). It was favoured by the upper class as it resulted inhealthier individuals with greater longevity and pronouncedreproductive successes. During this period, individuals consideredwine as a potent social lubricant, which favoured greater trade amongdifferent cultures and religion.
Oldand New Worlds
TheNew World (America, South Africa and Australia) fancies wine makingwhich endeavours to observe consistency in flavour from a vintageyear to the next, greater degrees of alcohol content levels(13%-14%), as well as, fruity tastes (Castaño et al. 2014). Yieldsare higher among the New World countries compared to yields realisedin the Old World. France, Spain and Italy form Old World Europe wherewine production is largely undertaken by cooperatives. Numeroussmall-scale farmers team up to form cooperatives that run wineriesfor processing harvested grapes into wine. It is, therefore, commonto find that wine produced in the Old World is labelled after regionsof production. The wine produced is also made from different grapevarieties thus quality and taste are rarely consistent. The New Worldgrape producing regions are generally warmer in comparison to the OldWorld.
Internalisationhas not only considerably affected the quantity in the target, but ithas also been theorised to exert a significant impact on wineconsumption in tourism. In the general framework, people recogniseconsumption as an assortment of developing and “contextual socialpractices,” where wine does not serve merely as nourishment butalso as a way of connecting with other individuals in political,cultural, and social terms (Mak et al. 2012). Thus, this means thatthe intake serves a symbolic importance, especially for socialpeculiarity. The divergence and convergence in intake canconsiderably affect these representational aspects of consumptionsince wine in tourism is an important cultural component an end pointhas to provide. New and old world countries boast significantlydeveloped wine sectors. South Africa, Chile, France, Australia andItaly presently regard wine as a primary resource in influencingtourism supply of a given locale. Wine tourism is, thus, a majorconstituent of contemporary tourist markets relative to wineproducing regions and quality of wine produced (Carroll 2009). Inessence, wine revolves about a target where people are not onlyconcerned in branded bottles but also in other unique aspects of wineproducing regions such as local artefacts and traditions.
Winetourism has resulted in the development of unique heritage sites androutes that offer thematic experiences through typical products thatprotect cultural identities. Wine tourism supports ideals oftravellers whose primary aim is to learn more about a particularproduct, knowledge of the product`s locale and its productionprocesses (Mak et al. 2012). However, wine may assume differentdegrees of significance in its place as a major factor in the degreeof competitiveness that regions boast. Wine tourism also takes intodifferent forms such as wine shows, festivals and visitingaesthetically pleasing vineyards. Another perspective involvestravelling for the exclusive aim of comprehending the unique andculturally ingrained lifestyles associated with wine producingregions.
Thereport has sought to provide the interaction between wine intake andglobalisation in the framework of tourism by examining the relevantperspectives of globalisation including heterogenisation andhomogenisation. To examine tourists’ motivation and perception inregards to wine preferences and choices, it is significant to look atthe essential and symbolic aspects of intake. In this regards, peopleview wine as a critical element of defining the heritage of regionsin the new and old worlds. With respect to local dynamics, wine endsup presenting a homogenising effect relative to tourism experiences.
Carroll,W.F., 2009. SUSHI:Globalization through food culture: towards a study of global foodnetworks.
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